bile

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bile

 [bīl]
a clear yellow or orange fluid produced by the liver. It is concentrated and stored in the gallbladder, and is poured into the small intestine via the bile ducts when needed for digestion. Bile helps in alkalinizing the intestinal contents and plays a role in the emulsification, absorption, and digestion of fat; its chief constituents are conjugated bile salts, cholesterol, phospholipid, bilirubin, and electrolytes. The bile salts emulsify fats by breaking up large fat globules into smaller ones so that they can be acted on by the fat-splitting enzymes of the intestine and pancreas. A healthy liver produces bile according to the body's needs and does not require stimulation by drugs. Infection or disease of the liver, inflammation of the gallbladder, or the presence of gallstones can interfere with the flow of bile.
bile acids steroid acids derived from cholesterol; classified as primary, those synthesized in the liver, e.g., cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids, or secondary, those produced from primary bile acids by intestinal bacteria and returned to the liver by enterohepatic circulation, e.g., deoxycholic and lithocholic acids.
bile ducts the canals or passageways that conduct bile. There are three bile ducts: the hepatic duct drains bile from the liver; the cystic duct is an extension of the gallbladder and conveys bile from the gallbladder. These two ducts may be thought of as branches that drain into the “trunk,” or common bile duct. The common bile duct passes through the wall of the small intestine at the duodenum and joins with the pancreatic duct to form the hepatopancreatic ampulla, or ampulla of Vater. At the opening into the small intestine there is a sphincter that automatically controls the flow of bile into the intestine.

The bile ducts may become obstructed by gallstones, benign or malignant tumors, or a severe local infection. Various disorders of the gallbladder or bile ducts are often diagnosed by ultrasonography, radionuclide imaging, and x-ray examination of the gallbladder and bile ducts using a special contrast medium so that these hollow structures can be clearly outlined on the x-ray film.

bile

(bīl), Avoid the jargonistic substitution of this word for bile pigment(s) in expressions such as bile in the urine and bile staining of tissues.
Yellowish-brown or green fluid secreted by the liver and discharged into the duodenum, where it aids in the emulsification of fats, increases peristalsis, and retards putrefaction; contains sodium glycocholate and sodium taurocholate, cholesterol, biliverdin, bilirubin, mucus, fat, lecithin, and cells and cellular debris.
Synonym(s): gall (1)
[L. bilis]

bile

(bīl) a fluid secreted by the liver, concentrated in the gallbladder, and poured into the small intestine via the bile ducts, which helps in alkalinizing the intestinal contents and plays a role in emulsification, absorption, and digestion of fat; its chief constituents are conjugated bile salts, cholesterol, phospholipid, bilirubin, and electrolytes.

bile

(bīl)
n.
A bitter, alkaline, brownish-yellow or greenish-yellow fluid that is secreted by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and discharged into the duodenum and aids in the emulsification, digestion, and absorption of fats. Also called gall1.

bile

[bīl]
Etymology: L, bilis
a bitter, yellow-green, viscid alkaline fluid secreted by the liver. Stored in the gallbladder, bile receives its color from the presence of bile pigments such as bilirubin. Bile passes from the gallbladder through the common bile duct in response to the cholecystokinin (CCK) produced in the duodenum in the presence of a fatty meal. Bile emulsifies these fats (breaks them into smaller particles and lowers the surface tension), preparing them for further digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Any interference in the flow of bile will result in the presence of unabsorbed fat in the feces and in jaundice. Also called gall. See also biliary obstruction, jaundice. biliary, adj.

bile

(bīl)
The yellowish-brown or greenish fluid secreted by the liver and discharged into the duodenum, where it aids in the emulsification of fats, increases peristalsis, and retards putrefaction; contains sodium glycocholate and sodium taurocholate, cholesterol, biliverdin and bilirubin, mucus, fat, lecithin, cells, and cellular debris.
[L. bilis]

bile

The dark greenish-brown fluid secreted by the LIVER, stored and concentrated in the GALL BLADDER, and ejected into the DUODENUM to assist in the absorption of fats. Bile contains bile salts which help to emulsify fats, bile pigments derived from the breakdown of red blood cells, cholesterol, lecithin and traces of various minerals and metals.
Fig. 64 Bile. The human gallbladder and bile duct.click for a larger image
Fig. 64 Bile . The human gallbladder and bile duct.

bile

a thick, brown-green fluid secreted by the liver which is alkaline in its reactions, containing bile salts, bile pigments, CHOLESTEROL and inorganic salts. Bile is transferred from the liver to the DUODENUM via the bile duct which in many mammals contains a reservoir called the gall bladder. The bile pigments (bilirubin and biliverdin) result from the breakdown of HAEMOGLOBIN in red blood cells, giving the bile its coloration which in turn affects the colour of the FAECES. The amount of cholesterol excreted in bile depends upon the blood fat level, the cholesterol in the bile normally being kept in solution by the bile salts. Reduction in the bile salt concentration can cause cholesterol to be deposited in the gall bladder, contributing to the formation of gallstones. Although bile contains no digestive enzymes, bile salts are also responsible for the EMULSIFICATION of fats in the duodenum, lowering the surface tension of the fatty film surrounding fatty food particles, so producing a larger surface area on which digestive enzymes (LIPASES) can work. Secretion of bile from the liver is stimulated by the hormone SECRETIN which is produced in the wall of the duodenum.

See also CHOLECYSTOKININ-PANCREOZYMIN.

Bile

A substance produced by the liver, and concentrated and stored in the gallbladder. Bile contains many different substances, including bile salts, cholesterol, and bilirubin. After a meal, the gallbladder pumps bile into the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) to keep the intestine's contents at the appropriate pH for digestion, and to help break down fats.

bile

secretion of the liver, variably stored in the gall bladder and discharged into the gut (duodenum). Contains the bile acids, important in the digestion and absorption of fats, and is the route for excretion of bile pigments (mainly bilirubin, from breakdown of the iron-containing pigments haemoglobin and myoglobin) and cholesterol.

bile (bāl),

n emulsifying fluid secreted from the gallbladder into the intestines. Bile breaks down fat globules to provide fat-absorbing enzymes with a larger surface area.

bile

(bīl) Avoid the jargonistic substitution of this word for bile pigment(s) in expressions such as bile in the urine and bile staining of tissues.
Yellowish-brown or green fluid secreted by the liver and discharged into the duodenum, where it aids in the emulsification of fats.
Synonym(s): gall (1) .
[L. bilis]

bile,

n an alkaline fluid secreted by the liver that breaks down fat and aids in its absorption in the small intestine. It has a yellow, green, or brown color and a bitter taste. Interference with its flow can result in jaundice.

bile

a clear yellow, orange or green fluid produced by the liver. It is concentrated and stored in the gallbladder, and is poured into the small intestine via the bile ducts when needed for digestion. Bile helps in alkalinizing the intestinal contents and plays a role in the digestion and absorption of fat; its chief constitutents are conjugated bile salts, cholesterol, phospholipid, bilirubin and electrolytes. See also bile duct, biliary.

bile acids
steroid acids derived from cholesterol; classified as primary, those synthesized in the liver, e.g. cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid, or secondary, those produced from primary bile acids by intestinal bacteria and returned to the liver by enterohepatic circulation, e.g. deoxycholic and lithocholic acid.
bile acid assay
are used in the diagnosis of liver disease and portacaval shunts when there are increased levels in the blood.
bile lake
bile duct obstruction may cause distention and rupture of biliary canaliculi. Small bile lakes result causing focal hepatic necrosis.
bile passages
bile canaliculi drain into bile ductules and interlobular ducts. These unite to form a series of hepatic ducts which carry the bile to the porta where they unite to form the common hepatic duct. This duct receives a cystic duct from the gallbladder (absent in the horse) and thence becomes the bile duct.
bile peritonitis
leakage of bile from the common bile duct or gallbladder may occur as a result of trauma, including perforation during percutaneous needle biopsy of the liver, and (rarely) erosion from biliary calculi. A chemical peritonitis results and may be fatal unless surgical repair is accomplished.
bile pigment
any one of the coloring matters of the bile; they are bilirubin, biliverdin, bilifuscin, biliprasin, choleprasin, bilihumin and bilicyanin. See also urobilinogen, stercobilin.
bile pleuritis
inflammation of the pleura resulting from perforating thoracic trauma with hepatodiaphragmatic fistula or iatrogenically from percutaneous liver biopsy techniques.
bile reflux
usually refers to movement of bile from the duodenum into the stomach where it may alter the gastric mucosal barrier causing gastritis and ulceration.
white bile
1. bile containing much mucin.
2. bile trapped in obstructed system for a long period and from which pigments have been resorbed.
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