Contrariwise, categorical variables (education, marital status, total family income, use of betel quid
(paan), family history of obesity, physical activity and hours spent on watching TV) were reported as frequencies and percentages n(%) and analysed using the chi-square test.
chewing by Cambodian women in the United States and its potential health effects: West J Med 1994; 160: 326-30.
45] Various studies suggest that collagen-related genes are altered by ingredients in the betel quid
The mutagenic effect of tobacco, alcohol, betel quid
or areca nut depends on dose, frequency and usage, and the effect is amplified upon using two or more of these agents concurrently.
Oral sub mucous fibrosis has a tendency toward malignancy since it is characterized as a pre malignant condition usually associated with betel quid
chewing, smoking and spicy food.
Evaluation of frequency of micronucleated oral mucosal cells as a marker for genotoxic damage in chewers of betel quid
with or without tobacco.
Oral mucosal lesions associated with betel quid
, areca nut and tobacco chewing habits: consensus from a workshop held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 25-27, 1996.
The habit of chewing betel quid
with or without tobacco is very common in our population.
Betel nuts are consumed in the form of betel quid
(commonly known as paan in Pakistan), gutka with or without tobacco and as an ingredient in small sachets of supari.
In Pakistan, betel quid
(tam baku wala paan) is betel leaf filled with areca nut (a psychoactive agent), tobacco, spices and slaked lime.
About 30 Percent of the cases occur in patients aged d" 40 years and 23 Percent in those aged e" 65 years, but now the trends are chang- ing since the young generations have also been ob- served consuming betel quid
and related products in large quantities.
A study published in 1982 from a population in Karachi reported that 21% of the people used betel quid