Betel Nut Chewing

A habit popular among Javanese, Malaysian, and Indian men; the ‘chew’ is composed of ground betel nut, slaked lime, ground spices including ginger and pepper wrapped in a betel leaf; associated with oral CA, which may be due to the high copper content
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Arecaidinism: betel nut chewing in transcultural perspective.
Covariates such as age, sex, smoking status, and betel nut chewing were compared between followed-up and nonparticipating cases, as well as persistent cases and recovered cases at follow-up, using Fisher's exact test for categorical variables, Welch's t-test for normally distributed variables, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test with continuity correction for non-normally distributed continuous variables.
1), after adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking status, betel nut chewing, BMI, and baseline arsenic.
39) (a) Adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, betel nut chewing, education, BMI, and baseline arsenic.
Betel nut chewing is prevalent in most jurisdictions of the USAPI, as well as in other parts of the Pacific and Asia; it is the fourth most commonly abused substance in the world after tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine.
With approval from the Ethics Committee of Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital (Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital IRB:097028) we studied the influence of long-term betel nut chewing (daily for over five years) on difficult intubation in 218 males requiring tracheal intubation for elective surgery.
Of the 218 male cases, 105 cases were in the long-term betel nut chewing group (BC) and 113 cases had no betel nut chewing history (Group NBC).
The frequency of OSF is usually low in the general population, but the OSF related to betel nut chewing has been reported as up to 14.
Though the use of betel nut originated in South East Asia and India, the practice of betel nut chewing has spread with the migration of these populations.
Indeed, betel nut chewing has been associated with oral cancers (Lin et al.
Earlier research linked betel nut chewing to a buildup of scar tissue under the mucus membrane, a precancerous condition.