safe cash); the aforementioned Fisher (retirement spending rates); Edmond Halley (on whether a pension annuity is worth it; and, yes, it's the celestial Halley; it turns out he wasn't just about the comet); Benjamin Gompertz
(on how long retirement spending will last); Leonardo Fibonacci (on how long his friend's money will last, which may have been the question that started the whole financial planning ballgame); and Andrei N.
In 1825, London insurance actuary Benjamin Gompertz
theorized that biological growth, whether of normal organs or malignancies, follows a common curve.
In the 19th century the insurance actuary Benjamin Gompertz
pointed out that as people age, their chance of dying doubles every eight years or so.