The subdivision of a department in a hospital or academic institution—e.g., internal medicine—into specialized fields—e.g., cardiology, dermatology, nephrology, neurology, et al—each having its own separate administration, staff, and ‘turf’
It would offer the advantage of providing a means of delinking federal employee pay from congressional pay and would bring some order to the chaos that has resulted from the balkanization of the civil service over the last two decades.
While lauding the courage and determination of Iraqis who participated in those elections, he points out that an American decision to insist on a national proportional representation election, instead of encouraging cross-ethnic and cross-confessional tickets to emerge in localities around the nation, made the results yet another step towards a balkanization of Iraq on strictly communal lines.
When conservatives criticized bilingual education and extreme multiculturalism for fracturing the nation's social cohesion, the union leader concurred, fought those programs, and argued that private school vouchers would promote even further balkanization.
John Anderson, of the Electricity Consumers Resource Council asserted, "Until we address the total transmission system, the wholesale interstate electricity grid will continue to be subject to balkanization and inefficiency.