To the Editor: Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living ameba that has a worldwide distribution in soil and was first reported in 1990 (1).
The public health threat from Balamuthia mandrillaris in the southern United States.
Case definitions for non-notifiable infections caused by free-living amebae (Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris
, and Acanthamoeba spp.
Two patients who received organ transplants from the same donor have died of encephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris
, an amoeba found in soil.
A free-living ameba naturally found in the environment, Balamuthia mandrillaris can cause a serious infection of the brain, other organs (skin, liver, kidneys), and rarely, spinal cord.
Balamuthia mandrillaris transmitted through organ transplantation--Mississippi, 2009.
Cases have been caused by emerging pathogens, including West Nile virus (WNV) (7, 8), rabies virus (9), lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) (10), and Balamuthia mandrillaris amebae (11).
Balamuthia mandrillaris infection of the skin and central nervous system: an emerging disease of concern to many specialties in medicine.
In-vitro activity of miltefosine and voriconazole on clinical isolates of free-living amebas: Balamuthia mandrillaris
, Acanthamoeba spp.
Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Naegleria fowleri in brain tissue and CSF by using JDP primers for a diagnostic small subunit rDNA fragment as previously described (3).
Disseminated infection with Balamuthia mandrillaris in a dog.
To the Editor: Balamuthia mandrillaris
, a free-living soil ameba, can cause granulomatous amebic encephalitis as well as nasopharyngeal, cutaneous, and disseminated infections in humans, nonhuman primates, and other animals.