bacteriophage

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Related to Bacteria phage: Lytic cycle, Bacteriophage therapy, Bacteriophage lambda

bacteriophage

 [bak-te´re-o-fāj″]
a virus that destroys bacteria by lysis; several varieties exist, and usually each attacks only one kind of bacteria. Certain types attach themselves to the cell membrane of the bacterium and instill a charge of DNA into the cytoplasm. DNA carries the genetic code of the virus, so that rapid multiplication of the virus takes place inside the bacterium. The growing viruses act as parasites, using the metabolism of the bacterial cell for growth and development. Eventually the bacterial cell bursts, releasing many more viruses capable of destroying similar bacteria. Called also bacterial virus. adj., adj bacteriopha´gic.

With some bacteria, notably those of the Streptococcus family, infection by certain phages can dramatically alter pathogenicity, converging previously innocuous microbes into deadly pathogenic strains. The so-called “flesh-eating” viruses are a striking example. They are relatively harmless bacteria until new geletic material is incorporated via a phage or plasmid.
temperate bacteriophage one whose genetic material (prophage) becomes an intimate part of the bacterial genome, persisting and being reproduced through many cell division cycles; the affected bacterial cell is known as a lysogenic bacterium.

bac·te·ri·o·phage

(bak-tēr'ē-ō-fāj), Avoid the mispronunciation bak-te'rē-ō-fahzh. Avoid the misspelling and mispronunciation bacterialphage.
A virus with specific affinity for bacteria. Bacteriophages have been found in association with nearly all groups of bacteria, including the Cyanobacteria; like other viruses they contain either (but never both) RNA or DNA and vary in structure from the seemingly simple filamentous bacterial virus to relatively complex forms with contractile "tails"; their relationships to the host bacteria are highly specific and, as in the case of temperate bacteriophage, may be genetically intimate. Bacteriophages are named after the bacterial species, group, or strain for which they are specific, for example, corynebacteriophage, coliphage; a number of families are recognized and have been assigned provisional names: Corticoviridae, Cystoviridae, Fuselloviridae, Inoviridae, Leviviridae, Lipothrixviridae, Microviridae, Myoviridae, Plasmaviridae, Podoviridae, Styloviridae, and Tectiviridae.
See also: coliphage.
Synonym(s): phage
[bacterio- + G. phagō, to eat]

bacteriophage

/bac·te·rio·phage/ (bak-tēr´e-o-fāj″) a virus that lyses bacteria.bacteriopha´gic
temperate bacteriophage  one whose genetic material (prophage) becomes an intimate part of the bacterial genome, persisting and being reproduced through many cell division cycles; the affected bacterial cell is known as a lysogenic bacterium (q.v.).

bacteriophage

(băk-tîr′ē-ə-fāj′)
n.
A virus that infects and lyses certain bacteria.

bac·te′ri·o·phag′ic (-făj′ĭk) adj.
bac·te′ri·oph′a·gy (-ŏf′ə-jē) n.

bacteriophage

[baktir′ē·əfāj′]
Etymology: Gk, bakterion + phagein, to eat
any virus that infects host bacteria, including the blue-green algae. Bacteriophages resemble other viruses in that each is composed of either ribonucleic acid (RNA) or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). They vary in structure from simple fibrous bodies to complex forms with contractile "tails." Bacteriophages associated with temperate bacteria may be genetically intimate with the host and are named for the bacterial strain for which they are specific, such as coliphage and corynebacteriophage. bacteriophagic, adj., bacteriophagy [-of′əjē] n.

bac·te·ri·o·phage

(bak-tēr'ē-ō-fāj)
A virus with specific affinity for bacteria. Bacteriophages have been found in essentially all groups of bacteria; like other viruses they contain either RNA or DNA (but never both) and vary in structure from simple to complex; their relationships to host bacteria are specific and may be genetically intimate. Bacteriophages are named after the bacterial species, group, or strain for which they are specific, e.g., corynebacteriophage, coliphage.
See also: coliphage
Synonym(s): phage.
[bacterio- + G. phagō, to eat]

bacteriophage

or

phage

a VIRUS that attacks BACTERIA. Bacteriophage literally means ‘bacterium-eater’. Each bacteriophage may infect one or a few strains or species of bacteria. Broadly, bacteriophages can be classified as VIRULENT or TEMPERATE. The bacteriophages are a very heterogeneous group. Some are small and icosahedral, for example π X174, others are simple filaments, for example M13, whilst many are more complex with a polyhedral head and a tail, for example T-phages.

Others have no definite shape but are pleomorphic. The table below presents some examples of representative bacteriophages. Many bacteriophages are composed of a PROTEIN coat and the NUCLEIC ACID of the CHROMOSOME; however, some also have a LIPID component. The nucleic acid may be DNA or RNA, hence the names DNA or RNA phages respectively. The nucleic acid may be double-stranded or single-stranded. Bacteriophage DNA molecules are often used as cloning VECTORS in GENETIC ENGINEERING. See also LYTIC CYCLE, LYSOGENY, PLAQUE, TRANSDUCTION, GENERALIZED TRANSDUCTION and SPECIALIZED TRANSDUCTION.

bac·te·ri·o·phage

(bak-tēr'ē-ō-fāj)
A virus with specific affinity for bacteria; found in essentially all groups of bacteria; like other viruses, they contain either RNA or DNA (but never both) and vary in structure from simple to complex; their relationships to host bacteria are specific and may be genetically intimate.
Synonym(s): phage.
[bacterio- + G. phagō, to eat]

bacteriophage,

n any virus that causes lysis of host bacteria.

bacteriophage

or simply phage; a virus that infects bacteria often killing them by lysis; many varieties exist, and usually each attacks only one kind of bacteria. Some bacteriophages are widely used as cloning vectors and for determining DNA sequence. Virulent DNA bacteriophages in the T series adsorb to specific receptor sites on the bacterial cell wall and inject their DNA content into the bacterium. The viral DNA usurps the machinery of the cell for the replication of viral DNA and protein which is assembled into a crop of progeny phage which are released by lysis from the cell. Called also bacterial virus.

M13 bacteriophage
small rod-shaped, nonlytic, single-stranded DNA phage; used as a template in the Sangar dideoxy method for DNA sequence determination.
φX174 bacteriophage
prototype of a class of phage that are small, icosahedral single-stranded DNA viruses that code for only 10 to 12 proteins and are highly dependent on the host cell for their replication.
RNA bacteriophage
the genome is RNA instead of DNA; smallest known viruses, encode for only four proteins; they have contributed to basic studies of RNA.
temperate b's
typified by λ phage; have a similar lytic life cycle but in addition have an alternate life cycle whereby the injected DNA becomes integrated into the cell DNA where it remains stable, behaving as a cell gene. The integrated DNA is called prophage and the bacterial cell is said to be lysogenic. The phage DNA may be induced whereby it becomes disassociated from the cell DNA and enters the lytic life cycle. Temperate phage may transfer bacterial cell DNA from one cell to another to produce a recombinant.