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bladder tumour antigen
Blood and Transplant Authority (formally, the NHS Blood and Transplant Authority) (Medspeak-UK)
botulinum toxin A
British Thyroid Association (Medspeak-UK)
antigen(ant'i-jen) [ anti- + -gen]
Antigens on the body's own cells are called autoantigens. Antigens on all other cells are called foreign antigens. Matching certain types of tissue antigens is important for the success of an organ transplant. Inflammation occurs when neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages encounter an antigen from any source during bodily injury. The antigen may be foreign or an autoantigen that has been damaged and therefore appears to be foreign. Reactions to antigens by T and B cells are part of the specific immune response. See: autoantigen; cytokine; histocompatibility locus antigen.
alpha-fetoprotein antigenSee: alpha-fetoprotein.
Australia antigen, Australian antigen
bladder tumor antigenAbbreviation: BTA
cancer antigenAbbreviation: CA
|Antigen name or designation||Abbreviation||The tumor it detects|
|Alpha-fetoprotein||AFP||Nonseminomatous germ cell tumor|
|CA 15–3||Breast cancer|
|CA 19–9||Pancreatic cancer|
|CA 50||Gastrointestinal tract tumors|
|CA 125||Ovarian/peritoneal cancer|
|Carcinoembryonic antigen||CEA||Gastrointestinal tract tumors and tumors of solid internal organs|
|Human chorionic gonadotropin||HCG||Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors; choriocarcinoma|
|Microglobulin-beta 2 subunit||b2–M||Multiple myeloma|
|Neuron-specific enolase||NSE||Broad variety of cancers, including small cell carcinoma of lung|
|NY-BR-40 and others||Breast cancer|
|Prostate specific antigen||PSA||Prostate cancer|
|Urinary tumor associated antigen||UTAA||Melanoma|
carcinoembryonic antigenAbbreviation: CEA
CD antigenSee: cluster of differentiation
class I antigen
class II antigen
hepatitis B core antigenAbbreviation: HBcAg
hepatitis B e antigenAbbreviation: HBeAg
hepatitis B surface antigenAbbreviation: HBsAg
hepatitis C core antigen
histocompatibility locus antigenAbbreviation: HLA
They are derived from genes at seven sites (loci) on chromosome 6, in an area called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); each histocompatibility antigen is divided into one of two MHC classes.
In humans, the proteins created in the MHC are called human leukocyte antigens (HLA) because these markers were originally found on lymphocytes. Each gene in the MHC has several forms or alleles. Therefore, the number of different histocompatibility antigens is very large, necessitating the identification and matching of HLAs in donors and recipients involved in tissue and organ transplantation. (The identification of HLAs is called tissue typing.)
The identification of HLA sites on chromosome 6 has enabled researchers to correlate the presence of specific histocompatibility and certain autoimmune diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, some forms of myasthenia gravis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis).
human leukocyte antigenHistocompatibility locus antigen.
lymphogranuloma venereum antigen
mumps skin test antigen
proliferating cell nuclear antigenAbbreviation: PCNA
prostate-specific antigenAbbreviation: PSA
CAUTION!Elevations in PSA levels may prompt invasive testing (such as with biopsies) that may detect indolent cancers as well as aggressive ones. Side effects of prostate biopsy include urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction.
thymus dependent antigen
thymus independent antigen
T independent antigen
bladder tumor antigenAbbreviation: BTA
Bladder Cancer Markers, Urine
SpecimenUrine (5 mL), unpreserved random specimen collected in a clean plastic collection container for NMP22 and Bard BTA; urine (30 mL), first void specimen collected in fixative specific for FISH testing.
NMP22: Negative: Less than 6 units/mL, borderline: 6 to 10 units/mL, positive: Greater than 10 units/mL
Cytogenic Marker: Negative
NMP22: Nuclear matrix proteins (NMPs) are involved in the regulation and expression of various genes. The NMP identified as NuMA is abundant in bladder tumor cells. The dying tumor cells release the soluble NMP into the urine. This assay is quantitative.
Bladder tumor antigen\ (BTA): A human complement factor H-related protein (hCFHrp) is thought to be produced by bladder tumor cells as protection from the body’s natural immune response. BTA is released from tumor cells into the urine. This assay is qualitative.
This procedure is contraindicated for
- Detection of bladder carcinoma
- Management of recurrent bladder cancer
Increased in bladder carcinoma.
- Bladder carcinoma
It is essential that critical findings be communicated immediately to the requesting health-care provider (HCP). A listing of these findings varies among facilities.
Timely notification of a critical finding for lab or diagnostic studies is a role expectation of the professional nurse. The notification processes will vary among facilities. Upon receipt of the critical finding the information should be read back to the caller to verify accuracy. Most policies require immediate notification of the primary HCP, hospitalist, or on-call HCP. Reported information includes the patient’s name, unique identifiers, critical finding, name of the person giving the report, and name of the person receiving the report. Documentation of notification should be made in the medical record with the name of the HCP notified, time and date of notification, and any orders received. Any delay in a timely report of a critical finding may require completion of a notification form with review by Risk Management.
- NMP22: Any condition that results in inflammation of the bladder or urinary tract may cause falsely elevated values.
- BTA: Recent surgery, biopsy, or other trauma to the bladder or urinary tract may cause falsely elevated values. Bacterial overgrowth from active urinary tract infection, renal or bladder calculi, gross contamination from blood, and positive leukocyte dipstick may also cause false-positive results.
- Cytogenic marker: Incorrect fixative, gross contamination from blood, bacterial overgrowth from active urinary tract infection, inadequate number of bladder cells in specimen.
Nursing Implications and Procedure
- Positively identify the patient using at least two unique identifiers before providing care, treatment, or services.
- Patient Teaching: Inform the patient this procedure can assist in establishing a diagnosis of bladder disease.
- Obtain a history of the patient’s complaints, including a list of known allergens.
- Obtain a history of the patient’s genitourinary system, symptoms, and results of previously performed laboratory tests and diagnostic and surgical procedures.
- Note any recent procedures that can interfere with test results.
- Obtain a list of the patient’s current medications including herbs, nutritional supplements, and nutraceuticals (see Effects of Natural Products on Laboratory Values online at DavisPlus).
- Review the procedure with the patient. Address concerns about pain and explain that there should be no discomfort during the procedure. Inform the patient that specimen collection takes approximately 5 min, depending on the cooperation and ability of the patient.
- Sensitivity to social and cultural issues, as well as concern for modesty, is important in providing psychological support before, during, and after the procedure.
- Note that there are no food, fluid, or medication restrictions unless by medical direction.
- Potential complications: N/A
- Instruct the patient to cooperate fully and to follow directions.
- Observe standard precautions, and follow the general guidelines in Patient Preparation and Specimen Collection. Positively identify the patient, and label the appropriate specimen containers with the corresponding patient demographics, initials of the person collecting the specimen, date and time of collection.
- Obtain urine specimen in a clean plastic collection container. Promptly transport the specimen to the laboratory for processing and analysis.
- Inform the patient that a report of the results will be made available to the requesting HCP, who will discuss the results with the patient.
- Recognize anxiety related to test results, and be supportive of fear of shortened life expectancy. Discuss the implications of abnormal test results on the patient’s lifestyle. Provide teaching and information regarding the clinical implications of the test results, as appropriate. Educate the patient regarding access to counseling services. Provide contact information, if desired, for the American Cancer Society (www.cancer.org) or the National Cancer Institute (www.cancer.gov).
- Reinforce information given by the patient’s HCP regarding further testing, treatment, or referral to another HCP. The greatest risk factor for bladder cancer is smoking. Inform the patient of smoking cessation programs as appropriate. Answer any questions or address any concerns voiced by the patient or family.
- Depending on the results of this procedure, additional testing may be performed to evaluate or monitor progression of the disease process and determine the need for a change in therapy. Evaluate test results in relation to the patient’s symptoms and other tests performed.
- Related tests include biopsy bladder, cytology urine, cystoscopy, IVP, and US bladder.
- Refer to the Genitourinary System table at the end of the book for related tests by body system.