dextrose

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dextrose

 [dek´strōs]
older chemical name for d-glucose (see glucose); the term dextrose continues to be used to refer to glucose solutions administered intravenously for fluid or nutrient replacement.

dextrose (d-glucose)

BD Glucose, Glutose, Insta-Glucose

Pharmacologic class: Monosaccharide

Therapeutic class: Carbohydrate caloric nutritional supplement

Pregnancy risk category C

Action

Prevents protein and nitrogen loss; promotes glycogen deposition and ketone accumulation (through osmotic diuretic action)

Availability

Injection: 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%

Oral gel: 40%

Tablets (chewable): 5 g

Indications and dosages

Insulin-dependent hypoglycemia

Adults and children: Initially, 10 to 20 g P.O., repeated in 10 to 20 minutes if needed based on blood glucose level; or 20 to 50 ml by I.V. infusion or injection of 50% solution given at 3 ml/minute. Maintenance dosage is 10% to 15% solution by continuous I.V. infusion until blood glucose level reaches therapeutic range.

Infants and neonates: 2 ml/kg of 10% to 25% solution by slow I.V. infusion until blood glucose level reaches therapeutic range

Calorie replacement

Adults and children: 2.5%, 5%, or 10% solution given through peripheral I.V. line, with dosage tailored to patient's need for fluid or calories; or 10% to 70% solution given through large central vein if needed (typically mixed with amino acids or other solution)

Off-label uses

• Varicose veins
• Insulin-secreting islet-cell adenoma

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug
• Hyperglycemia, diabetic coma
• Hemorrhage
• Heart failure

Precautions

Use cautiously in:
• renal, cardiac, or hepatic impairment; diabetes mellitus.

Administration

• Use aseptic technique when preparing solution. Bacteria thrive in high-glucose environments.

Infuse concentrations above 10% through central vein.
• Don't infuse concentrated solution rapidly, because doing so may cause hyperglycemia and fluid shifts.

Never stop infusion abruptly.

Adverse reactions

CNS: confusion, loss of consciousness

CV: hypertension, phlebitis, venous thrombosis, heart failure

GU: glycosuria, osmotic diuresis

Metabolic: hyperglycemia, hypervolemia, hypovolemia, electrolyte imbalances, hyperosmolar coma

Respiratory: pulmonary edema

Skin: flushing, urticaria

Other: chills, fever, dehydration, injection site reaction, infection

Interactions

Drug-drug.Corticosteroids, corticotropin: increased risk of fluid and electrolyte imbalances

Drug-diagnostic tests.Glucose: increased level

Patient monitoring

Monitor infusion site frequently to prevent irritation, tissue sloughing, necrosis, and phlebitis.
• Check blood glucose level at regular intervals.
• Monitor fluid intake and output.
• Weigh patient regularly.
• Assess patient for confusion.

Patient teaching

• Teach patient how to recognize signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia.
• Provide instructions on glucose self-monitoring.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and tests mentioned above.

d-glu·cose (G, Glc),

(glū'kōs),
Dextrose; a dextrorotatory monosaccharide (hexose) found in the free state in fruits and other parts of plants, and combined in glucosides, disaccharides (often with fructose in sugars), oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides; it is the product of complete hydrolysis of cellulose, starch, and glycogen. Free glucose also occurs in the blood, where it is a principal energy source for use by body tissues (normal human concentration, 70-110 mg per 100 mL); in diabetes mellitus, it appears in the urine. The epimers of d-glucose are d-allose, d-mannose, d-galactose, and l-idose. Dextrose should not be confused with the l-isomer, which is sinistrose.
Synonym(s): cellohexose

dextrose

/dex·trose/ (dek´strōs) a monosaccharide, d-glucose monohydrate; used chiefly as a fluid and nutrient replenisher, and also as a diuretic and for various other clinical purposes. Known as d-glucose in biochemistry and physiology.

dextrose

(dĕk′strōs′)
n.
The dextrorotatory form of glucose, C6H12O6·H2O, the naturally occurring form of glucose found in all organisms. Also called dextroglucose.

dextrose

[dek′strōs]
Etymology: L, dexter, right
glucose available in various solutions for IV administration.
indications It is prescribed for the treatment of calorie deficit, for hypoglycemia, and in solution for fluid deficit.
contraindications Diabetic coma, intracranial or intraspinal hemorrhage, or delirium tremens prohibit its use.
adverse effects Among the more serious adverse reactions are hyperglycemia, glycosuria, and phlebitis.

dextrose

An older term for d-glucose.

glu·cose

(glū'kōs)
A dextrorotatory monosaccharide found in a free form in fruits and other parts of plants, and in combination in glucosides, glycogen, disaccharides, and polysaccharides (starch cellulose); the chief source of energy in human metabolism, the final product of carbohydrate digestion, and the principal sugar of the blood; insulin is required for the use of glucose by cells; in diabetes mellitus, the level of glucose in the blood is excessive, and it also appears in the urine.
Synonym(s): d-glucose.

dextrose

Glucose. A DEXTROROTARY sugar.

dextrose

see GLUCOSE.

dextrose (dek´strōs),

n dextrorotatory glucose, a monosaccharide occurring as a white, crystalline powder; colorless and sweet.

dextrose

an old chemical name for d-glucose, an important energy source for all tissues and the sole energy source for the brain in some species such as the sheep. The term dextrose continues to be used to refer to glucose solutions administered intravenously for fluid or nutrient replacement. See also glucose.

Patient discussion about dextrose

Q. What difference does fructose makes to a diabetic with respect to glucose? I am diabetic with type 2 NIDDM. My colleague with the same NIDDM type2 has a better glycemic control than me. He follows strict diet. He prefers fructose sugar and avoids other sugar as much as possible. He suggested me the same. What difference does fructose makes to a diabetic with respect to glucose?

A. All carbohydrates—like starch and sugars like dextrose, maltose and glucose must be controlled for high consumption by a diabetic. Whereas fructose sugar had a slight different metabolic route inside the body and it does not requires insulin. Glucose requires insulin. As a diabetic lacks insulin production; the glucose increases the sugar level of the body but fructose is out of this system of functioning by our body and makes a diabetic to control it well. The energy level of glucose and fructose are almost similar.

Q. When will I have the Glucose Tolerance Test? I am pregnant and wanted to know when I need to have the Glucose Tolerance Test and what is the test like.

A. The test is given between week 24 and week 28 of the pregnancy. First you drink glucose, which is very sweet. You can mix it will water to help it go down easier. Then, after an hour you will have a blood test to check your glucose levels.

Q. What Do my Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Results Mean? I had an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test last week. I am 26 weeks pregnant. The results I got are 132 mg/dL. What does this mean?

A. If your blood glucose level was greater than 130 mg/dL, your provider will likely recommend you take another diabetes screening test that requires you to fast (not eat anything) before the test. During this second test, called the 100-gram oral glucose tolerance test, your blood glucose level will be tested four times during a three-hour period after drinking the cola-like drink. If two out of the four blood tests are abnormal, you are considered to have gestational diabetes.

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