penicillin

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penicillin

 [pen″ĭ-sil´in]
any of a large group of natural or semisynthetic antibacterial antibiotics derived directly or indirectly from strains of fungi of the genus Penicillium and other soil-inhabiting fungi grown on special culture media. Penicillins exert a bacteriocidal as well as a bacteriostatic effect on susceptible bacteria by interfering with the final stages of the synthesis of peptidoglycan, a substance in the bacterial cell wall. Despite their relatively low toxicity for the host, they are active against many bacteria, especially gram-positive pathogens (streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci); clostridia; certain gram-negative forms (gonococci and meningococci); certain spirochetes (Treponema pallidum and T. pertenue); and certain fungi. Certain strains of some target species, for example staphylococci, secrete the enzyme penicillinase, which inactivates penicillin and confers resistance to the antibiotic. Some of the newer penicillins, such as methicillin, are more effective against penicillinase-producing organisms. A class of extended-spectrum penicillins includes piperacillin and mezlocillin.

Penicillin is administered intramuscularly, orally, in liquid or tablet form, and topically in ointments. Oral administration requires larger doses of the drug because absorption is incomplete. Allergic reactions occur in some persons. The reaction may be slight—a stinging or burning sensation at the site of injection—or it can be more serious—severe dermatitis or even anaphylactic shock, which may be fatal.
penicillin G the most widely used penicillin, used principally in the treatment of infections due to gram-positive organisms, gram-negative cocci, Treponema pallidum and Actinomyces israelii. The usual forms are salts such as penicillin benzathine, potassium, procaine, or sodium. Called also benzylpenicillin.
penicillin V a biosynthetically or semisynthetically produced antibiotic similar to penicillin g, used orally in the form of the benzathine or potassium salt for mild to moderately severe infections due to susceptible gram-positive bacteria.

pen·i·cil·lin

(pen'i-sil'in),
1. Originally, an antibiotic substance obtained from cultures of the molds Penicillium notatum or P. chrysogenum; interferes with cell wall synthesis in bacteria.
2. One of a family of natural or synthetic variants of penicillic acid. They are mainly bactericidal, are especially active against gram-positive organisms, and, with the exception of hypersensitivity reactions, show a particularly low toxic action on animal tissue.
[see penicillus]

penicillin

/pen·i·cil·lin/ (pen″ĭ-sil´in) any of a large group of natural (p. G, p.V) or semisynthetic antibacterial antibiotics derived directly or indirectly from strains of fungi of the genus Penicillium and other soil-inhabiting fungi, which exert a bactericidal as well as a bacteriostatic effect on susceptible bacteria by interfering with the final stages of the synthesis of peptidoglycan, a substance in the bacterial cell wall. The penicillins, despite their relatively low toxicity for the host, are active against many bacteria, especially gram-positive pathogens (streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci); clostridia; some gram-negative forms (gonococci, meningococci); some spirochetes (Treponema pallidum and T. pertenue ); and some fungi. Certain strains of some target species, e.g., staphylococci, secrete the enzyme penicillinase, which inactivates penicillin and confers resistance to the antibiotic.

penicillin

(pĕn′ĭ-sĭl′ĭn)
n.
1. An antibiotic drug obtained from molds especially of the genus Penicillium or produced synthetically, available in various preparations and usually used to treat infections caused by gram-positive bacteria.
2. Any of a group of broad-spectrum antibiotic drugs, synthetic or semisynthetic, that are derived from penicillin.

penicillin

[pen′isil′in]
Etymology: L, penicillus, paintbrush
any one of a group of antibiotics derived from cultures of species of the fungus Penicillium or produced semisynthetically. Various penicillins administered orally or parenterally for the treatment of bacterial infections exert their antimicrobial action by inhibiting the biosynthesis of cell-wall mucopeptides during active multiplication of the organisms. Penicillin G is a widely-used therapeutic agent for meningococcal, pneumococcal and streptococcal infections; syphilis; and other diseases. It is rapidly absorbed when injected intramuscularly or subcutaneously, but it is inactivated by gastric acid and hydrolyzed by penicillinase produced by most strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Penicillin V is also active against gram-positive cocci, with the exception of penicillinase-producing staphylococci, and, because it is resistant to gastric acid, it is effective when administered orally. Penicillins resistant to the action of the enzyme penicillinase (beta-lactamase) are cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, methicillin, nafcillin, and oxacillin. Ampicillin and amoxicillin are broad-spectrum aminopenicillins active against gram-negative organisms, including Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Salmonella, Shigella, and Proteus mirabilis. Extended-spectrum penicillins include carbenicillin, piperacillin, and ticarcillin. These drugs are effective against the same bacteria killed by the aminopenicillins and are also effective against a number of additional bacteria, including species of Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Proteus, and Bacteroides. Hypersensitivity reactions are common in patients receiving penicillin and may appear in the absence of prior exposure to the drug, presumably because of unrecognized exposure to a food or other substance containing traces of the antibiotic. The most common hypersensitivity reactions are rash, fever, and bronchospasm, followed in frequency by vasculitis, serum sickness, and exfoliative dermatitis. In some patients severe erythema multiforme accompanied by headache, fever, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis (Stevens-Johnson syndrome) develop. The most frequent cause of anaphylactic shock is an injection of penicillin.

penicillin

Infectious disease An antibiotic that inhibits crosslinking of peptidoglycan chains in bacterial cell walls; bacteria growing in penicillin synthesize weak cell walls, causing them to burst due to the high osmotic pressure. See Ampicillin.

pen·i·cil·lin

(pen'i-sil'in)
1. Originally, an antibiotic substance obtained from cultures of the molds Penicillium notatum or P. chrysogenum; interferes with cell wall synthesis in bacteria.
2. One of a family of natural or synthetic variants of penicillic acid. They are mainly bactericidal, are especially active against gram-positive organisms, and, with the exception of hypersensitivity reactions, show a particularly low toxic action on animal tissue.

penicillin

an antibiotic produced by the FUNGUS Penicillium that is toxic to a number of bacteria, both pathogenic and nonpathogenic. In 1928 it was observed by Sir Alexander FLEMING that the FUNGUS inhibited growth of bacteria, and that a substance extracted from it still had this antibiotic property

penicillin

antibiotic derived from Penicillium moulds; bactericidal against non-resistant Gram-positive microorganisms; may provoke sensitivity reactions, e.g. urticaria and/or anaphylaxis; note: patients with penicillin allergy may also react to penicillamine and cephalosporins

antibiotic 

1. Pertaining to the ability to destroy or inhibit other living organisms.
2. A substance derived from a mould or bacterium, or produced synthetically, that destroys (bactericidal) or inhibits the growth (bacteriostatic) of other microorganisms and is thus used to treat infections. Some substances have a narrow spectrum of activity whereas others act against a wide range of both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms (broad-spectrum antibiotics). Antibiotics can be classified into several groups according to their mode of action on or within bacteria: (1) Drugs inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis, such as bacitracin, vancomycin and the β-lactams based agents (e.g. penicillin, cephalosporins (e.g. ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime). (2) Drugs affecting the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, such as polymyxin B sulfate and gramicidin. (3) Drugs inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis, such as aminoglycosides (e.g. amikacin sulfate, framycetin sulfate, gentamicin, neomycin sulfate and tobramycin), tetracyclines, macrolides (e.g. erythromycin and azithromycin) and chloramphenicol. (4) Drugs inhibiting the intermediate metabolism of bacteria, such as sulfonamides (e.g. sulfacetamide sodium) and trimethoprim. (5) Drugs inhibiting bacterial DNA synthesis, such as nalixidic acid and fluoroquinolones (e.g. ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin). (6) Other antibiotics such as fusidic acid, the diamidines, such as propamidine isethionate and dibrompropamidine. Syn. antibacterial. See antiinflammatory drug; fusidic acid.

pen·i·cil·lin

(pen'i-sil'in)
One of a family of natural or synthetic variants of penicillic acid; mainly bactericidal, are especially active against gram-positive organisms, and, with the exception of hypersensitivity reactions, show a particularly low toxic action on animal tissue.

penicillin (pen´isil´in),

n an antibiotic secured from cultures of
P. notatum, being bactericidal for gram-positive cocci, some gram-negative cocci (gonococcus and meningococcus), and clostridial and spirochetal organisms. Its topical application to the oral mucusa membranes is discouraged because of the high risk of sensitization from local application of antibiotic substances.
penicillin G,
n an acid-sensitive form of penicillin prepared as penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine used for deep intramuscular administration. It is slowly released, resulting in prolonged effective blood levels. In past dentistry, it was used prophylactically for patients predisposed to bacterial endocarditis prior to any invasive dental procedure. Now it has been replaced by amoxicillin. It has a high allergy potential. See also penicillin G benzathine.
penicillin G benzathine,
n brand names: Bicillin L-A, Permapen;
drug class: benzathine salt of natural penicillin;
action: interferes with cell wall replication of susceptible organisms; osmotically unstable cell wall swells and bursts from osmotic pressure;
uses: respiratory infections, scarlet fever, erysipelas, otitis media, pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections, and yaws.
penicillin V potassium/penicillin V,
n brand names: Beepen-VK, Betapen-VK, V-Cillin K, Veetids, others;
drug class: semisynthetic penicillin;
action: interferes with cell wall replication of susceptible organisms; the cell wall, rendered osmotically unstable, swells and bursts from osmotic pressure;
uses: effective for both gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli.

penicillin

any of a large group of natural or semisynthetic antibacterial antibiotics derived directly or indirectly from strains of fungi of the genus Penicillium and other soil-inhabiting fungi grown on special culture media. Penicillins exert a bactericidal as well as a bacteriostatic effect on susceptible bacteria by interfering with the final stages of the synthesis of peptidoglycan, a substance in the bacterial cell wall. Despite their relatively low toxicity for the host, they are active against many bacteria, especially gram-positive pathogens (streptococci, staphylococci); clostridia; certain gram-negative forms; certain spirochetes (Treponema pallidum and T. pertenue); and certain fungi. Certain strains of some target species, for example staphylococci, secrete the enzyme penicillinase, which inactivates penicillin and confers resistance to the antibiotic. Some of the newer penicillins, for example methicillin, are more effective against penicillinase-producing organisms. An additional class of extended-spectrum penicillins has been approved for use; it includes piperacillin and mezlocillin.
There are four groups of penicillins, the natural penicillins, penicillin G and penicillin V, with a narrow spectrum of activity, mainly against gram-positive bacteria; the aminopenicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin and hetacillin) are semisynthetic derivatives and have a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and many gram-negative organisms, but are susceptible to penicillinase-producing Staphylococcus spp.; penicillinase-resistant penicillins, which include cloxacillin, methicillin, nafcillin and oxacillin; and the extended-spectrum penicillins (azlocillin, carbenicillin, mezlocillin, piperacillin and ticarcillin), which are effective against gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Allergic reaction to penicillin occurs in some animals. The reaction may be slight—a stinging or burning sensation at the site of injection—or it can be more serious—severe dermatitis or even anaphylactic shock, which may be fatal.

penicillin allergy
degradation products of the penicillins act as haptens, binding to proteins and stimulating an immune response.
penicillin G
benzylpenicillin; the most widely used penicillin; used principally in the treatment of infections due to gram-positive bacteria. Procaine penicillin G is a parenteral preparation that gives extended action for up to 24 hours and benzathine penicillin G is a very slow-release, parenteral preparation that maintains blood levels for several days.
penicillin-induced hemolytic anemia
rare problem in horses which develop IgG anti-penicillin antibodies.
phenoxymethyl penicillin
a biosynthetically or semisynthetically produced antibiotic, similar to penicillin G, for oral administration; not affected by gastric acid and is suitable for oral administration. Its antibacterial spectrum is the same as for penicillin G. Called also penicillin V.
penicillin V
see phenoxymethyl penicillin (above).

Patient discussion about penicillin

Q. is it possible to drink alcohol during taking penicillin antibiotic?

A. i know that it's probably bad to take antibiotics with alcohol but couldn't remember why. so i looked you question up until i found a Doctor's answer to it-
http://medical.justanswer.com/dentist/1c5dz-okay-drink-alcohol-penicillin

More discussions about penicillin