avian influenza

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avian influenza

a serious viral disease of many birds, both domestic (especially chickens, ducks, and turkeys) and wild. Wild birds act as reservoirs for influenza A virus (Orthomyxovirus); in birds, these viruses are responsible for clinical pictures ranging from low-grade illness to serious outbreaks with high mortality rates; signs range from reduced egg production to a fulminant peracute clinical course; respiratory signs (sinusitis, blood-stained nasal discharge) often occur in acute infections. Historically, close contact of fowl with humans has been shown epidemiologically to foster cross-species jump (avian to human) of new influenza strains (e.g., Hong Kong 1997 [AH5N1], Hong Kong 1999 [AH9N2]). New neuroaminidase and hemagglutinin subtypes develop as a result of antigenic drift, and less commonly, antigenic shift resulting in serious human influenza epidemics, and give rise to the need for annual reformulation of flu vaccines to protect against newer active strains. Currently 15 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase subtypes have been identified in reservoir species.

avian influenza

[ā′vē·ən]
a highly contagious viral disease of birds caused by an influenza A virus; it occurs in both mild and severe forms. The severe form is highly pathogenic and can result in a mortality rate for birds that can reach 90% to 100% within 48 hours. It may be transmitted to humans through contact with bird droppings or surfaces contaminated by them or through intermediate hosts such as pigs. Person-to-person transmission appears to be rare. Symptoms of avian influenza in humans range from typical influenza-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress, and other severe and life-threatening complications. The only means of control when avian influenza has been observed in a flock of domestic fowl is destruction of infected birds and disinfection of the farm. Also called avian flu, bird flu.

avian influenza

A highly contagious viral infection that can infect commercial, wild, and pet birds, including chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, parrots, and budgerigars. Of the 15 serotypes of bird flu, H5N1 is of greatest concern. The first human H5N1 cases were seen in Hong Kong in 1997, and were linked to close contact with live infected poultry or their saliva, fluids from their beaks, or their droppings, which can contaminate dust, soil, water, feed, equipment, vehicles, and clothing. Person-to-person spread is poorly documented and may not occur.

a·vi·an in·flu·en·za

(ā'vē-ăn in'flū-en'ză)
A disease of birds due to strains of influenza A virus. Although wild birds, the natural hosts, seldom become sick when infected, avian influenza viruses can cause disease in domestic poultry and, rarely, in human beings. Transmission of the virus occurs through direct contact with an infected bird. The consequences of human infection vary from conjunctivitis and respiratory symptoms to severe systemic illness and death.
Synonym(s): bird flu.

avian influenza

‘bird ‘flu’ caused by the H5N1 virus that caused epidemics in poultry in Japan, Korea, Thailand, China and Vietnam early in 2004. The virus is capable of spreading from birds to humans. By early 2005 there had been 44 known cases of H5N1 infection in humans with 32 deaths. There is serious concern that recombination with human influenza viruses may already have occurred raising the danger of human to human infection.

Newcastle,

a community in England near the location where Newcastle disease was first observed.
Newcastle disease - an influenzalike disease of birds that is transmissible to man if in contact with diseased birds. Synonym(s): avian influenza; Ranikhet disease

avian

pertaining to or emanating from members of the class Aves. See also bird.

avian air sacs
avian broodiness
the desire to sit on eggs and hatch them is very strong in birds after they have laid a few eggs at the beginning of a new egg laying season. The procedure is a disaster for the commercial egg producer because egg laying ceases. Temporary measures are available to discourage hens from going broody but the long-term practice has been to select against it so that modern egg laying strains of birds do not show broodiness.
avian diseases
diseases affecting birds. For individual diseases see under etiological or pathoanatomic keyword, e.g. avian arizonosis, myeloblastosis (2).
avian hepatitis B-like virus
avian incubation periods
quail hatch in 16-18 days, chickens in 21, ducks in 28 days (Muscovies are an exception—33-35 days) and turkeys in 28 days. In some wild species hatching is synchronized by communication between the eggs.
infectious avian nephrosis
see infectious avian nephrosis.
avian influenza
a highly contagious disease caused by influenza A virus, affecting fowl, turkeys, pheasants and some wild birds, but rarely waterbirds or pigeons. Clinically there is a short course and very heavy mortality; birds that survive have a nasal discharge, white necrotic spots on the comb and wattles, and edema of the head and neck. Called also fowl plague. Some strains, notably H5N1 and H7N7, have emerged as the cause of fatal, but relatively rare, human infections.
avian leukosis
see avian leukosis.
avian lymphoid leukosis
see lymphoid leukosis.
avian malaria
a disease affecting most species of birds and caused by Plasmodium spp. (P. gallinaceum in fowl, P. juxtanucleare in fowl and turkeys, P. durae and P. griffithsi in turkeys). The disease is characterized by anemia which may be fatal. Transmission is by mosquitoes. See also plasmodium.
avian molt
see molting.
avian nesting
a strong biological urge to prepare a nest and lay eggs in it occurs in only some domestic birds. The building of a nest is stimulated by the previous laying of an egg.
avian oogenesis
the process from the time that the oocyte leaves the ovary until is produced with the typical avian flourish as a finished egg takes 25-26 hours. The yolk is added to the oocyte in the ovary and over a period of 60-70 days before the ovum is released. The oocyte is enveloped with albumen in the albumen-secreting section or magnum of the oviduct. The two shell membranes are added to the egg as it passes through the isthmus of the oviduct. The shell is added during a stay of about 15-20 hours in the shell gland, the last stop before the vagina. See also egg (4).
avian pox
see fowlpox.
avian reticuloendotheliosis virus
pathogenic avian retroviruses that are antigenically and genetically unrelated to avian leukosis/sarcoma retroviruses.
avian tuberculosis
see Mycobacterium aviumtuberculosis.
avian type C retroviruses
includes avian leukosis viruses and avian sarcoma viruses.
avian vibrionic hepatitis
see avian vibrionic hepatitis.

Patient discussion about avian influenza

Q. If the bird flu were to reach North America, how many people would it kill? How do you protect yourself & others? What can we do to protect ourselves against the Avian Flu which has officially begun to infect humans? How many will die?

A. It infected few people working with chickens, it can
T move around, so I wouldn’t worry too much. the chances of that happening is the same as a meteor hitting earth and destroying it, same as a nuclear war in the middle east that will wipe out half of humanity, same as all big disasters that can happen.
Unless it’s your job to worry about it (world health organization) – just try to live peaceful life.

More discussions about avian influenza
References in periodicals archive ?
Experts believe that the so-called 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic, which may have killed as many as 50 million people, began when an avian flu virus jumped to people.
The avian flu virus was found on Tuesday in laying hens at the farm in Banbury, and all birds on the site were slaughtered.
The avian flu virus was found in laying hens at the farm in Banbury, and all birds on the site were slaughtered.
The research, described in the January 6 online edition of <em>Nature Biotechnology</em> and funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), offers new insights into how the H5N1 avian flu virus currently circulating in birds would have to change in order to gain a foothold in human populations.
Although it gave a basic view of viruses there were some inaccuracies and low key comments with regard to the avian flu virus.
Sixty-nine patients and staff at Ysbyty Gwynedd had been contacted because a patient, who is now discharged, was also being treated for the avian flu virus.
There has clearly beenalapseinbio-security, otherwise the avian flu virus would not have got into that poultry shed.
But it has now emerged the slaughter house it uses is only 30 miles from a goose farm where 13,000 birds had to be culled last month after an outbreak of the deadly avian flu virus.
Pathogen-free cells are critical for the rapid development of novel, cell-culture based vaccine production to help protect against the spread of influenza viruses among humans, including potentially the high pathogenicity H5N1 avian flu virus.
The new test, approved by the federal Food and Drug Administration in February, allows state scientists to test for the presence of the avian flu virus without having to send samples to another laboratory outside of New Hampshire.
The effort to increase production comes amid fears that avian flu virus - spreading throughout Asia and Europe on the wings of birds - could mutate into a form easily transmissible among humans and start a global epidemic.
Nemetz presented information on the influenza virus, what it does, how it changes and develops, why there is such concern about the Avian flu virus and how companies can provide a corporate medical response.

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