Autoimmune disease


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autoimmune disease

 [aw″to-ĭ-mun´]
disease associated with the production of antibodies directed against one's own tissues. The immunological mechanism of the body is dependent on two major factors: first, inactivation and rejection of foreign substances, and second, the ability to differentiate between the body's own material (self) and that which is foreign (nonself). It is not yet known exactly what causes the body to fail to recognize proteins as its own and to react to them as if they were foreign. Several possibilities have been identified as pertinent to the development of autoimmunity.

1. There may be a leakage of normally inaccessible tissue antigen from its isolated location into an area where it comes into contact with the immunocompetent cells of the reticuloendothelial system. These reticuloendothelial cells do not recognize the formerly inaccessible antigen as “self” and react accordingly.

2. The antigens that are normally accessible to the RES cells may suddenly stimulate the production of autoantibodies. It is thought that this occurs as a result of the emergence of “forbidden clones” (colonies) of cells. Normally these cells are inactivated as a result of adaptive changes that occur during fetal life. For reasons not yet fully explained, these “forbidden clones” survive and emerge to produce an autoimmune reaction. It is believed that they may be activated by injury, disease, or a metabolic change in the body, or there may be a mutation of the forbidden clone cells and immunologically competent cells.

3. Certain body proteins may be so altered by viral infection, by combination with a drug or chemical, or by extensive trauma (as in a severe burn and myocardial infarction) that they are no longer recognized by the body as “self” and are therefore rejected as foreign.

Autoimmune disease can be viewed as a spectrum of disorders. At one end are organ-specific diseases, in which there is localized tissue damage resulting from the presence of specific auto-antibodies. An example is Hashimoto's disease of the thyroid, characterized by a specific lesion in the thyroid gland with infiltration by mononuclear cells, destruction of follicular cells, and production of antibodies with absolute specificity for certain thyroid constituents.

In the middle of the spectrum are disorders in which the lesion tends to be localized in one organ, but the antibodies are nonorgan specific. An example is primary biliary cirrhosis, in which there is inflammatory cell infiltration of the small bile ductule, but the serum antibodies are not specific to liver cells.

At the other end of the spectrum are non-organ specific diseases, in which lesions and antibodies are widespread throughout the body and not limited to one target organ. Systemic lupus erythematosus is an example of this type of autoimmune disease. Others include rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and postviral encephalomyelitis.

Treatment of autoimmune diseases varies with each specific disease, but in all cases the members of the health care team must strive to achieve a delicate balance between adequate suppression of the autoimmune reaction to avoid continued damage to the body tissues, and maintenance of sufficient functioning of the immune mechanism to protect the patient against foreign invaders.

au·to·im·mune dis·ease

any disorder in which loss of function or destruction of normal tissue arises from humoral or cellular immune responses to the body's own tissue constituents; may be systemic, as systemic lupus erythematosus, or organ specific, as thyroiditis.

autoimmune disease

one of a large group of diseases characterized by altered function of the immune system of the body, resulting in the production of antibodies against the body's own cells. Antigens normally present on the body's cells stimulate the development of autoantibodies, which, unable to distinguish those antigens from external antigens, act against the body's cells to cause localized and systemic reactions. These reactions can affect almost any cell or tissue and cause a variety of diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and autoimmune thyroiditis. Some autoimmune disorders, such as Hashimoto's disease, are tissue specific, whereas others, such as SLE, affect multiple organs and systems. Both genetic and environmental triggers may contribute to autoimmune disease. About 5% to 8% of the U.S. population is affected by an autoimmune disease. Most autoimmune diseases occur in women.
observations The manifestations and clinical characteristics depend on the specific disease and on the organ or organ systems affected. See specific diseases.
interventions Therapy includes corticosteroid, antiinflammatory, and immunosuppressive drugs. Symptoms are treated specifically.
nursing considerations Many autoimmune diseases are characterized by periods of crisis interrupted by periods of remission. During a crisis, the patient may be hospitalized and require extensive nursing care, with relief from pain, applications of heat or cold, range of motion exercises, or assistance in movement and ambulation. It is important also to teach the patient and the family the side effects of the drugs being prescribed and how the drugs are to be taken. See also autoantibody, autoantigen.

autoimmune disease

A condition in which the body recognises its own tissues as foreign and directs an immune response against them. Autoimmune disease is linked to production of antibodies against self-antigens, which affects ± 5% of adults (2/3 are women in Western nations).
 
Examples
Goodpasture’s disease, Hashimoto’s disease, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, pernicious anaemia.

Autoimmune disease, defining features
• An antibody is present;
• The antibody interacts with a target (self-antigen);
• Passive transfer of serum reproduces features of the disease;
• Immunisation with the antigen reproduces the disease;
• Reduction of the antibody ameliorates the disease.

autoimmune disease

Clinical immunology Any condition in which the body recognizes its own tissues as foreign and directs an immune response against them; AD is linked to production of antibodies against self antigens, which affects ± 5% of adults–23 are ♀ in Western nations

au·to·im·mune dis·ease

(aw'tō-i-myūn' di-zēz')
Any disorder in which loss of function or destruction of normal tissue arises from humoral or cellular immune responses to the person's own tissue constituents; may be systemic, as systemic lupus erythematosus, or organ specific, as thyroiditis.

autoimmune disease

One of a wide range of conditions in which destructive inflammation of various body tissues is caused by antibodies produced because the body has ceased to regard certain cells of the affected part as ‘self’. Autoimmune diseases include ADDISON'S DISEASE, AUTOIMMUNE ENTEROPATHY, primary biliary cirrhosis, Goodpasture's syndrome, HASHIMOTO'S THYROIDITIS, MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, MYXOEDEMA, PEMPHIGOID, RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, SJOGREN'S SYNDROME, SYMPATHETIC OPHTHALMITIS, both forms of LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, THYROTOXICOSIS, ULCERATIVE COLITIS and possibly MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.

Autoimmune disease

A diseases in which the body's immune system, responsible for fighting off foreign invaders such as bacteria and viruses, begins to attack and damage a part of the body as if it were foreign.

autoimmune disease

diseases characterized by autoallergic inflammation, including rheumatoid disease, pernicious anaemia, Hashimoto's thyrotoxicosis, Crohn's disease, bullous pemphigus, systemic lupus erythematosus, type 1 diabetes mellitus and many others
autoimmune disease range of diseases characterized by progressive inflammatory changes induced by autoantibody formation

au·to·im·mune dis·ease

(aw'tō-i-myūn' di-zēz')
Disorder in which loss of function or destruction of normal tissue arises from humoral or cellular immune responses to the body's own tissue constituents.

autoimmune

the state conferred by autoimmunity.

autoimmune disease
a disease state characterized by a specific antibody or cell-mediated immune response against the body's own tissues (autoantigens).
The immunological mechanism of the body is dependent on two major factors: (1) the inactivation and rejection of foreign substances and (2) the ability to differentiate between the body's own antigens ('self') and foreign ('nonself'). It is not yet known exactly what causes the body to fail to recognize proteins as its own and to react to them as if they were foreign. Autoimmune reactions are rare in large animal diseases. thrombocytopenia, milk allergy and spermatic granuloma are known examples. In dogs and cats there are a number of autoimmune diseases recognized and they occur with some frequency. These include autoimmune hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, glomerulonephritis, lymphocyticthyroiditis and a variety of dermatological disorders in the pemphigus group of diseases.
autoimmune reaction
includes, most importantly, the acute syndromes of anaphylaxia and pulmonary and cutaneous diseases.

Patient discussion about Autoimmune disease

Q. Why does the body attack itself in autoimmune diseases? And if it’s possible - How come it doesn’t happen most of the time?

A. Some say cell-wall deficient (CWD) bacteria can live inside your cells (were apparently photographed in immune cells under electron microscope). See www.marshallprotocol.com and autoimmunityresearch.org (run by the autoimmunity research foundation). Also see bacteriality.com. I have been on the MP for just over a year. It has helped a lot of my symptoms, including lowering my TSH (thyroid) from hashimoto's thyroiditis (autoimmune thyroid condition). I hope that my thyroid will eventually regain all of it's function (still taking some thyroid hormone supplement, but less). The MP is not without "side effects," which are said to be from bacterial die-off and cell death when the bacteria are killed. It is experimental and should only be undertaken with that in mind. The marshallprotocol.com website is currently moderated by volunteers. There needs to be more research on CWD bacterial colonies and their possible role in autoimmune diseases. Please mention this to your doctor(s).

Q. I heard that omega 3 is good for autoimmune diseases- is that true? I have Rheumatoid Arthritis, and I take all sort of anti inflammatory drugs. And I heard I can take omega 3 and I’ll be able to cut down the medication.

A. According to studies Omega 3 fatty acids have anti inflammatory effects and a lot of other helpful qualities. Here is a some articles I found about it. Any way you should consult your doctor maybe for you specific- it won’t help. But here it is:
http://www.jacn.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/6/495

Q. My boy has diabetes. Recently he was diagnosed with vitiligo. What is it and what can be the reason for this? My boy has diabetes. recently he was diagnosed with vitiligo. Our doctor said that he hopes it not a polyglandular autoimmune syndrome. what is vitiligo and what does this big phrase (polyglandular autoimmune syndrome) mean?

A. Vitiligo is a pigmentation disorder and the major cause of vitiligo is the autoimmunity. Some internal factor cause the destruction of melanocytes cell which produce the melanin a substance responsible for the coloration of skin. this lack of melanin infect results in <a href="http://www.antivitiligo.com/">white patch on skin</a> of hypo pigmentation.
Normally vitiligo is not related with other disease like diabetes. However a little inheritance may include in the occurence of vitiligo.

More discussions about Autoimmune disease
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