Documented cases (1,14-21) have been attributed to species of Austrobilharzia Johnston 1917, the adults of which most commonly infect gulls and shorebirds (14).
The Bureau of Vector Control of the California Department of Health Services identified the cercariae as Austrobilharzia variglandis (Miller and Northrup 1926) collected from the eastern Atlantic mudsnail Ilyanassa obsoleta (Say 1822) (Hypsogastropoda: Nassariidae) syn.
The only other known marine schistosomes belong to species of the genera Austrobilharzia and Ornithobilharzia Ohdner 1912, which are distantly related to the BTGD clade (Figure 4).
The marine dermatitis-producing cercaria of Austrobilharzia variglandis in California (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae).
The bird schistosome Austrobilharzia terrigalensis from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.