spectroscopy data were collected on PHI 680 Auger nanoprobe equipped with a field emission electron gun and a cylindrical mirror kinetic energy analyzer.
In the second mechanism, excess energy can be transferred to another valence electron, the Auger electron
, which gains enough energy to leave the atom.
It has been reported that, for the bimetal layer consisting of Ni and Al, a series of differentiated Auger electron
spectra, recorded during the oxidation in-situ, revealed that only the oxidation of Al occurred and that of Ni was restrained.
As Auger electrons
are emitted from the immediate surface, the nature of contaminants or other surface layers can be determined.
emission occurs within the same excitation volume; however, inelastic scattering in the solid prevents subsurface Auger electrons
from contributing to the peaks in the Auger spectrum.
AES focuses a narrow beam of electrons onto a conducting sample, and measures the energy of near surface Auger electrons
that are emitted.
3] is dissipated by the emission of an Auger electron
from the M or N levels.
Using Auger electron
spectroscopy, it has been shown that PC is completely removed from the inside of the holes.
Surface techniques can be of two-types: ex situ methods (where samples are removed from solution or a reaction vessel and placed in ultra-high vacuum systems), such as Auger electron
spectroscopy (AES), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and in situ methods, such as infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy, Table 1 shows a summary of the first three techniques together with the information they provide.
Surface sensitive analytical techniques such as secondary ion mass spectroscopy, auger electron
spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy will always detect some degree of transfer.
used a sophisticated technique known as X-ray-excited Auger electron
spectroscopy to investigate in detail the arrangement of electrons in molecules of these explosives.
13 Auger Electron
, X ray and UV Photoelectron Spectroscopies