atropine

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atropine

 [at´ro-pēn]
an anticholinergic alkaloid found in belladonna; it acts as a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, blocking stimulation of muscles and glands by parasympathetic and cholinergic sympathetic nerves; used as the sulfate salt as a smooth muscle relaxant, as an antiarrhythmic, as a preanesthetic to reduce secretions, as an antidote to poisoning by organophosphorus compounds, cholinesterase inhibitors, or muscarine, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.
atropine poisoning severe toxic reaction due to overdosage of atropine. Symptoms include dryness of mouth, thirst, difficulty in swallowing, dilated pupils, tachycardia, fever, delirium, stupor, and a rash on the face, neck, and upper trunk.

Treatment of atropine poisoning: This will depend on the patient, dose, and route of administration. A poison control center and emergency service should be contacted immediately if poisoning occurs in the home. Measures to be anticipated in the clinical setting include airway maintenance, monitoring, control of temperature, lavage, and sometimes administration of activated charcoal.

at·ro·pine

(at'rō-pēn),
A racemic mixture of d- and l- hyoscyamine, alkaloids obtained from the leaves and roots of Atropa belladonna; an anticholinergic, with diverse effects (tachycardia, mydriasis, cycloplegia, constipation, urinary retention, antisudorific) attributable to reversible competitive blockade of acetylcholine at muscarinic type cholinergic receptors; most commonly used in the treatment of poisoning with organophosphate insecticides or nerve gases, as well as certain types of bradydysrhythmias and to prevent secretions during preparation for general anesthesia. The (-) form is by far the more active.

atropine

/at·ro·pine/ (at´ro-pēn) an anticholinergicand antispasmodic alkaloid used as the sulfate salt to relax smooth muscles and increase and regulate the heart rate by blocking the vagus nerve, and to act as a preanesthetic antisialagogue, an antidote for various toxic and anticholinesterase agents and as an antisecretory, mydriatic, and cycloplegic.

atropine

(ăt′rə-pēn′, -pĭn) also

atropin

(-pĭn)
n.
A poisonous, bitter, crystalline alkaloid, C17H23NO3, obtained from belladonna and other related plants. It is used to dilate the pupils of the eyes and as an antispasmodic.

atropine

[at′rōpin]
Etymology: Gk, Atropos, one of the three Fates
an alkaloid from Atropa belladonna and Datura stramonium plants. It is related to other drugs, such as scopolamine and hyoscyamine, and has a similar action of blocking parasympathetic stimuli by raising the threshold of response of effector cells to acetylcholine.

atropine

Therapeutics A racemic mixture of toxic alkaloids extracted from Atropa belladonna, a competitive antagonist of anticholinergics Effects Tachycardia, ↓ salivation, GI motility–constipation, sweating, cycloplegia, mydriasis, urinary retention, bronchodilation Therapeutic use Bronchodilator, reverses effects of organophosphate pesticides, nerve gases Contraindications Narrow-angle glaucoma, synechiae between iris and lens, GI obstruction, obstructive uropathy, megacolon, GERD, unstable cardiovascular disease and acute hemorrhage, tachycardia, myasthenia gravis

atropine

A bitter, poisonous alkaloid obtained from the plant Atropa belladonna (‘deadly nightshade’) and the seeds of the Thorn-apple. It blocks acetyl choline receptors and is used to relax spasm in smooth muscle in the intestines and other organs. It is also extensively used by ophthalmologists to dilate the pupil of the eye in the treatment of inflammatory disease and sometimes to facilitate examination. The drug is on the WHO official list. The generic term derives from the Greek a , not, and tropos , turning. Atropos was one of the three fates noted for her inexorable tendency to cut the thread of life.

atropine

a poisonous chemical obtained from the deadly nightshade that prevents depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane and therefore prevents synaptic transmission, in a similar way to CURARE. It is used medicinally in preanaesthetic medication and to treat peptic ulcers, renal and biliary colic, etc.

Atropine

A poisonous alkaloid obtained from belladonna or related plants, used medically to dilate the pupils of the eyes and to stop spasms.
Mentioned in: Fugu Poisoning

atropine

substance that, by affecting local enzyme actions, leads to destruction (inactivation) of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at parasympathetic nerve endings. By preventing parasympathetic action where there is dual autonomic innervation, atropine allows the sympathetic influence to predominate, e.g. it increases the heart rate, dilates the pupils, reduces salivary secretion and relaxes intestinal smooth muscle.

atropine 

An alkaloid obtained from the belladonna plant. It is an antimuscarinic drug. In the eye it acts as a mydriatic and as a cycloplegic. It paralyses the pupillary sphincter and the ciliary muscle by preventing the action of acetylcholine at the parasympathetic nerve endings. See acetylcholine; cycloplegia; mydriatic.

at·ro·pine

(at'rō-pēn)
Mixture of d- and l- hyoscyamine, alkaloids obtained from the leaves and roots of Atropa belladonna; an anticholinergic, with diverse effects attributable to reversible competitive blockade of acetylcholine at muscarinic type cholinergic receptors.

atropine (at´rōpēn),

n an alkaloid that annuls parasympathetic effects and antagonizes the effects of pilocarpine. It acts directly on the effector cells, preventing the action but not the liberation of acetylcholine. It suppresses sweat and other glandular sections.
atropine sulfate,
n brand name: Sal-Tropine;
drug class: anticholinergic;
action: inhibits muscarinic actions of acetylcholine at postganglionic parasympathetic neuroeffector sites;
uses: reduction of salivary and bronchial secretions.

atropine

an anticholinergic alkaloid occurring in belladonna, hyoscyamus and stramonium. It acts as a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, blocking stimulation of muscles and glands by parasympathetic and cholinergic sympathetic nerves; used as a smooth muscle relaxant, as a preanesthetic to reduce secretions, and as an antidote to organophosphate poisoning. Has been used as a spasmolytic in many cases of gut hypermotility, e.g. equine spasmodic colic. Has the disadvantage of causing prolonged pupillary dilatation.

atropine challenge test
used in the diagnosis of narcolepsy in dogs; pretreatment with atropine reduces the number of cataleptic attacks with exposure to food.
atropine methobromide
a synthetic muscarinic blocking agent used as a smooth muscle relaxant but less effective against poisoning with organophosphorus insecticides than atropine. Called also methylatropine.
atropine poisoning
severe toxic reaction due to overdosage of atropine. Signs include dilated pupils, absent pupillary light reflex, dry mouth, high heart rate, excitement, muscle tremor. In animals usually results from atropine overdose.
atropine sulfate
the pharmaceutical preparation in common use.