Atkins diet

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Atkins Diet

 

Definition

The Atkins diet is a high-protein, high-fat, and very low-carbohydrate regimen. It emphasizes meat, cheese, and eggs, while discouraging foods such as bread, pasta, fruit, and sugar. It is a form of ketogenic diet.

Purpose

The primary benefit of the diet is rapid and substantial weight loss. By restricting carbohydrate intake, the body will burn more fat stored in the body. Since there are no limits on the amount of calories or quantities of foods allowed on the diet, there is little hunger between meals. According to Atkins, the diet can alleviate symptoms of conditions such as fatigue, irritability, headaches, depression, and some types of joint and muscle pain.

Description

The regimen is a low-carbohydrate, or ketogenic diet, characterized by initial rapid weight loss, usually due to water loss. Drastically reducing the amount of carbohydrate intake causes liver and muscle glycogen loss, which has a strong but temporary diuretic effect. Long-term weight loss occurs because with a low amount of carbohydrate intake, the body burns stored fat for energy.
The four-step diet starts with a two-week induction program designed to rebalance an individual's metabolism. Unlimited amounts of fat and protein are allowed but carbohydrate intake is restricted to 20 grams per day. Foods allowed include butter, oil, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, cheese, and cream. The daily amount of carbohydrates allowed equals about three cups of salad vegetables, such as lettuce, cucumbers, and celery.
The second stage is for ongoing weight loss. It allows 20-40 grams of carbohydrates a day. When the individual is about 10 pounds from their desired weight, they begin the pre-maintenance phase. This gradually adds one to three servings a week of high carbohydrate foods, such as a piece of fruit or slice of whole-wheat bread. When the desired weight is reached, the maintenance stage begins. It allows 40-60 grams of carbohydrates per day.
Opinion from the general medical community remains mixed on the Atkins diet. There have been no significant long-term scientific studies on the diet. A number of leading medical and health organizations, including the American Medical Association, American Dietetic Association (ADA), and the American Heart Association oppose it. It is drastically different than the dietary intakes recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the National Institutes of Health. Much of the opposition is because the diet is lacking in some vitamins and nutrients, and because it is high in fat. In a hearing before the U.S. Congress on February 24, 2000, an ADA representative called the Atkins diet "hazardous" and said it lacked scientific credibility.

Preparations

No advance preparation is needed to go on the diet. However, as with most diets, it is generally considered appropriate to consult with a physician and to have a physical evaluation before starting such a nutritional regimen. The evaluation should include blood tests to determine levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and uric acid. A glucose tolerance test is also recommended.

Precautions

Adherence to the Atkins diet can result in vitamin and mineral deficiencies. In his books, Atkins recommends a wide-range of nutritional supplements, including a multi-vitamin. Among his recommendations, Atkins suggests the following daily dosages: 300-600 micrograms (mcg) of chromium picolinate, 100-400 milligrams (mg) of pantetheine, 200 mcg of selenium, and 450-675 mcg of biotin.
The diet is not recommended for lacto-ovo vegetarians, since it cannot be done as successfully without protein derived from animal products. Also, vegans cannot follow this diet, since a vegan diet is too high in carbohydrates, according to Atkins. Instead, he recommends vegetarians with a serious weight problem give up vegetarianism, or at least include fish in their diet.

Side effects

According to Atkins, the diet causes no adverse side effects. Many health care professionals disagree. In a fact sheet for the Healthcare Reality Check Web site (〈http://www.hcrc.org〉), Ellen Coleman, a registered dietician and author, said the diet may have serious side effects for some people. She said complications associated with the diet include ketosis, dehydration, electrolyte loss, calcium depletion, weakness, nausea, and kidney problems. "It is certainly riskier for overweight individuals with medical problems such as heart disease, hypertension, kidney disease, and diabetes than it is for overweight people with no health problems," she said.
People with diabetes taking insulin are at risk of becoming hypoglycemic if they do not eat appropriate carbohydrates. Also, persons who exercise regularly may experience low energy levels and muscle fatigue from low carbohydrate intake.

Resources

Books

Atkins, Dr. Robert C. Dr. Atkins' Age-Defying Diet Revolution. New York: St. Martin's Press. 1999.

Periodicals

Cray, Dan, et al. "The Low-Carb Diet Craze." Time November 1, 1999: 72-79.
Gotthardt, Melissa Meyers. "The New Low-Carb Diet Craze." Cosmopolitan February 2000: 148.
Merrell, Woodson. "How I Became a Low-Carb Believer." Time November 1, 1999: 80.
Turner, Richard. "The Trendy Diet That Sizzles." Newsweek September 6, 1999: 60.

Other

Atkins Center for Complementary Medicine. 152 E. 55th St., New York, NY 10022. 212-758-2110. http://www.atkinscenter.com.

At·kins di·et

(at'kinz dī'ĕt)
Controversial weight loss program developed in the early 1970s by Dr. Robert Atkins, in which carbohydrate consumption is severely restricted to attain significant weight loss.

Atkins diet

A low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet capable of effecting rapid weight loss. Low carbohydrate intake may be associated with ketosis, an increased protein load on the kidneys, and a change in the acid-base balance with mineral loss from bones. There is also a loss of the known benefits of a diet high in fruit, vegetables and whole-grain products.

Atkins,

Robert C., U.S. physician, 1930-2003.
Atkins diet - eating plan that stresses high intake of protein and low intake of carbohydrates.

low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets

emphasize carbohydrate restriction while generally ignoring total calories and the content of protein, cholesterol and saturated fat. The diet was first promoted in the 1970s by Atkins and has appeared in various forms since. These diets generate excess ketone bodies as the by-products of incomplete fat breakdown, with a high level in the plasma that supposedly suppresses appetite. Theoretically, ketones lost in the urine represent unused energy that should also facilitate weight loss. The main mechanism of action, however, may be restriction of the carbohydrate-containing foods, creating a low-calorie diet. These diets have a negative effect on ability to train and compete; they rapidly deplete glycogen stores and also induce significant loss of lean tissue.

Patient discussion about Atkins diet

Q. Atkins diet I've tried this diet many times but always found difficulty to prolong it. Even when succeeded the weight came rushing back. Can someone please explain me how it works and pros and cons of it?

A. You can read about the controversy surrounding Atkins' diet here. In my opinion, you should switch from "going in" a temporary diet to changing your life style. If you diet for three months, and then return to your old habits (which are the ones that brought you to your weight), it's not surprising you gain the weight back. Our weight reflects, in many ways, our life style, so this should be the focus and not a temporary diet.

Good luck!

Q. what is the atkins diet? i hope i spelled it right ... :)

A. it's basicly a high protein-low carbohydrates diet. this is actually a genius idea of how to trick the body. the body can use the protein getting in as energy but it's much much less then carbo. and it actually works and you can loose weight. and here is the big but-
it's very unhealthy and there is no chance of keeping doing it for long and most people i saw doing it got their weight (+ interest). the body cannot store proteins so he breaks them up and change them. some of the materials that become in that process is unhealthy in large quantities (like urea).

Q. MY friend are starting the Atkins diet and want to know if what alcoholic drink we can have at gatherings.

A. The Ongoing Weight Loss (OWL) phase of Atkins diet consists of an increase in carbohydrate intake, but remaining at levels where weight loss occurs. During this phase your are able to consume a certain amount of carbohydrate, including alcohol (even beer).

More discussions about Atkins diet
References in periodicals archive ?
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The Atkins Nutritional Approach consists of four phases: Induction, Ongoing Weight Loss, Pre-Maintenance and Lifetime Maintenance and focuses on controlling carbohydrate intake while consuming nutrient-dense, unprocessed foods and incorporating supplements and exercise into one's lifestyle.
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