Yes, 235 ways scientists can fool themselves, with sober names such as confounding, selection bias, recall bias, reporting bias, ascertainment bias
, sex bias, cognitive bias, measurement bias, verification bias, publication bias, observer bias, and on and on.
Characterizing rare mutations in highly selected populations, such as those with very high HDL cholesterol concentrations, may lead to ascertainment bias
or chance findings.
This makes us think this is ascertainment bias
," said Valeant consultant Lauren Marangell, MD, a psychiatrist and president of Brain Health Consultants.
Therefore, ascertainment bias
is a possibility, despite use of a bilingual staff and consent and donor materials available in Spanish.
First, this study is likely affected by ascertainment bias
, because it only reports acute rheumatic fever patients who sought care at the hospital.
15] investigators believe that the increase reflected ascertainment bias
The strengths of the study are its large size and varied location of participants from all across the USA and the adjustments for a range of socioeconomic indicators to minimise ascertainment bias
, or decreased genetic variability in species that were not directly targeted in the original marker selection process, is a common finding in genetic studies of microsatellite loci among closely related species (Ellegren et al.
In single-child paternity cases, ascertainment bias
was compensated for by counting every apparent null allele carrier parent as two null carriers.
Such data are subject to ascertainment bias
 in which the method of eliciting the suicidal information can result in apparent differences in the rates of these events between treated subjects and untreated controls.
Researchers, "found evidence of a strong association between COPD and lung cancer, but this was largely explained by the effect of smoking and is most apparent in recently diagnosed cases of COPD, suggesting a strong element of ascertainment bias
Grobman writes at some length about the concepts of selection bias and ascertainment bias