Arthus reaction

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Ar·thus re·ac·tion

See also: immune complex disease. Synonym(s): Arthus phenomenon
2. Arthus-type reaction; reaction in humans and other species that results from the same basic immunologic (allergic) mechanism that evokes, in the rabbit, the typical Arthus phenomenon.
See also: immune complex disease.

Arthus reaction

Etymology: Nicholas M. Arthus, French physiologist, 1862-1945
a rare, severe, immediate nonatopic hypersensitivity reaction to the injection of a foreign substance, that usually is not irritating but in certain individuals is antigenic. The reaction is thought to involve the formation of an antigen-antibody complex that activates complement. Acute local inflammation, usually in the skin and marked by edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis, occurs at the site of injection. Also called Arthus phenomenon. See also serum sickness.

Arthus reaction

A local zone of necrosis seen in the skin due to a type-III hypersensitivity immune reaction, characterised by acute immune complex deposition with vasculitis secondary to injection of an antigen to which a host has previously formed high levels of circulating antibody.

immune complex disease

Immunology Any of a number of conditions—caused by circulating antigen-antibody-immune complexes, which in the face of mild antigen excess, lodge in small vessels and filtering organs of the circulation Clinical Fever, enlarged and/or tender joints, splenic congestion, proteinuria due to glomerular IC deposition, eosinophilia, hypocomplementemia, lymphadenopathy, glomerulonephritis–HTN, oliguria, hematuria, edema, skin–purpura, urticaria, ulcers, carditis, hepatitis, myositis, necrotizing vasculitis. See Immune complex.
Immune complex disease
Arthus reaction Acute hemorrhagic necrosis that follows re-exposure to an antigen, which attracts PMNs, activates complement, binds ICs by the Fc receptor, causing phagocytosis, ↑ production of chemotactic factors, especially C5b67 and ↑ anaphylotoxins C3a and C5a, resulting in vasodilation
Serum sickness A reaction that is milder than the Arthus reaction, occurring 8-12 days after exposure to the antigen, at the time of 'equivalence' (antigen and antibody are in a 1:1 ratio), after injection of a foreign protein mixture, eg horse serum for antitoxin to tetanus  

Arthus reaction

Arthus phenomenon, a local necrotic reaction that occurs when an ANTIGEN is injected into the skin of a person previously sensitized to it. The preformed antibody combines with the injected antigen causing a high local concentration of immune complexes and severe tissue damage. (Nicholas Maurice Arthus, French physiologist, 1862–1945).


Nicolas Maurice, French bacteriologist, 1862-1945.
Arthus phenomenon - a form of immediate hypersensitivity observed in rabbits after injection of antigen to which the animal has already been sensitized and has specific IgG antibodies. Synonym(s): Arthus reaction
Arthus reaction - Synonym(s): Arthus phenomenon

Arthus reaction

a local antibody-mediated hypersensitivity reaction in which antibody-antigen complexes which fix complement are deposited in the walls of small vessels causing acute inflammation with an infiltration of neutrophils. Characteristic of type III hypersensitivity reactions. See also serum sickness.

passive cutaneous Arthus reaction
antiserum is injected intravenously and the corresponding antigen is injected into the skin.
reverse passive Arthus reaction
antiserum is injected into the skin and the antigen is injected into the same site or intravenously.
References in periodicals archive ?
Local reactions included limb pain, limb swelling, cellulitis, lymphadenitis, and Arthus reaction.
Severe adverse events, including Arthus reactions, were not seen among nearly 6,000 adolescents who kept diaries for 28 days following receipt of Adacel, although there was a modest increase in injection-site events with decreasing interval since the previous immunization.
The Type III, or Arthus reactions are mainly mediated by IgG through a mechanism involving the generation of antigen-antibody complexes [TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 3 OMITTED] that subsequently fix complement.