septic arthritis

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sup·pu·ra·tive ar·thri·tis

acute inflammation of synovial membranes, with purulent effusion into a joint, due to bacterial infection; the usual route of infection is hemic to the synovial tissue, causing destruction of the articular cartilage; may become chronic, with sinus formation, osteomyelitis, deformity, and disability.

septic arthritis

an acute form of arthritis characterized by bacterial inflammation of a joint caused by the spread of bacteria through the bloodstream from an infection elsewhere in the body or by contamination of a joint during trauma or surgery. The joint is stiff, painful, tender, warm, and swollen. The diagnosis is confirmed by bacteriological identification of an organism in a specimen obtained by aspiration of the joint. Parenteral antibiotics are given to prevent destruction of the joint and are continued for several weeks after inflammation has resolved. Repeated aspiration of the joint or surgical incision and drainage may be performed to relieve pressure on it. Physical therapy as the joint heals is helpful to restore it to full range of motion. Also called acute bacterial arthritis.

septic arthritis

Bacterial arthritis, infectious arthritis, non-gonococcal bacterial arthritis Rheumatology A non-gonococcal infection of a joint, which develops when bacteria spread to a joint Clinical Rapid onset with joint swelling, intense pain, low-grade fever Risk factors Concurrent bacterial infection, chronic illness, immunosuppression, rheumatoid arthritis, IVDA, recent joint trauma, or recent joint arthroscopy or surgery; it is not uncommon in children < age 3, affecting primarily the hip, in adults, knee involvement is more common Agents in children Group B streptococcus, H influenzae

Septic arthritis

Another name for infectious arthritis.
Mentioned in: Infectious Arthritis

septic arthritis

arthritis due to joint infection

arthritis

inflammation of a joint. See also arthropathy, polyarthritis.

bacterial arthritis
arises from penetrating wounds, extension from adjacent tissues or by hematogenous spread, especially umbilical infection in the newborn. More common in farm animals than dogs and cats. Some specific causes are erysipelas in pigs and sheep, Streptococcus spp. in pigs, calves and lambs, coliforms in calves, Haemophilus spp. in pigs (Glasser's disease) and lambs, Arcanobacterium spp. in lambs, and Chlamydophila pecorum in calves and lambs.
corynebacterial arthritis
a nonsuppurative arthritis and bursitis of lambs caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.
crystal-induced arthritis
deforming arthritis
see erosive arthritis (below).
degenerative arthritis
see degenerative joint disease.
drug-induced arthritis
a number of antibiotics, particularly sulfonamide-trimethoprin, may cause an immune-mediated arthritis and other clinical signs, including glomerulonephritis, polymyositis and thrombocytopenia.
enteropathic arthritis
arthritis of unknown etiology, but associated with bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis and regional enteritis in humans. A similar condition has been recognized in dogs.
erosive arthritis
characterized by the erosion of articular cartilage and destruction of subchondral bone which is dramatically demonstrated radiographically. Generally these are the immune-mediated joint diseases and include canine rheumatoid arthritis (below), polyarthritis in Greyhounds, feline chronic progressive polyarthritis. Called also deforming arthritis.
erysipelas arthritis
occurs sporadically in calves, more commonly in lambs and as a major disease in pigs. In all species it is an acute or chronic, nonsuppurative arthritis.
fibrinous arthritis
the acute inflammatory stage of most infectious arthritides. The joint fluid is increased in volume and is turbid and mucinous, the fibrin appearing as a particulate deposit on the serous surface.
idiopathic nondeforming arthritis
occurs in dogs and uncommonly in cats in the absence of systemic lupus erythematosus or chronic infectious systemic disease. It may involve one or several joints with fever, lameness and muscle atrophy. The disease may be chronic and cyclic with spontaneous remissions and recurrences. Presumed to be immune-mediated.
immune-mediated arthritis
noninfectious joint disease involving immune mechanisms. Seen mainly in dogs and cats. See also nonerosive arthritis (below).
infectious arthritis
may be caused by bacteria, mycoplasma, virus, fungus, rickettsiae, or protozoa in the joint only or as part of systemic infection.
lymphocytic-plasmacytic arthritis
see lymphocytic-plasmacytic synovitis.
mycoplasma arthritis
Mycoplasma hyosynoviae and M. hyorhinis cause arthritis in pigs, the former with an accompanying polyserositis.
neonatal arthritis
localization from a systemic infection in the joints causing septic arthritis, often in several joints, and infection in other vulnerable organs. Neonatal susceptibility is due to availability of the umbilical vessels as a port of entry and an inadequate defense until maternal antibodies provide passive immunity. Called also navel ill, omphalitis.
nonerosive arthritis
includes those without significant radiographic changes. Includes the arthritis that occurs in association with canine systemic lupus erythematosus and chronic systemic infections, enteropathic arthritis and idiopathic nondeforming arthritis.
persistent proliferative arthritis
see periosteal proliferative polyarthritis.
retroviral arthritis
the arthritis of goats caused by a retrovirus. The syndrome also includes encephalitis and pneumonia. Called also big-knee. See also caprine arthritis-encephalitis.
rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
a chronic, autoimmune disease of dogs that causes swelling and lameness in joints, often accompanied by systemic signs of fever, malaise and lymphadenopathy. The erosive, destructive changes in joints can be demonstrated on x-rays. The disease is similar to that described in humans and the diagnosis is usually based on satisfying criteria used for humans.
septic arthritis
acute arthritis due to infection of a kind likely to establish a bacteremia or septicemia.
traumatic arthritis
may be caused by trauma that penetrates the joint capsule, introducing infectious agents and resulting in an infectious arthritis, or injures articular cartilage or soft tissues supporting the joint.
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