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Joseph, English otologist, 1815-1866. See: Toynbee corpuscles, Toynbee muscle, Toynbee tube.
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Ashton, he gave a radically different - optimistic - interpretation from that originally advanced by the posthumous publication of Arnold Toynbee, (uncle of the more famous Arnold Toynbee of A Study of History), Lectures on the Industrial Revolution in England (London, 1884).
Even more distant from such ideas might seem to be the secular expectations of Marxism; the once fashionable ideas put forward by Oswald Spengler in The Decline of the West; or the more reasoned statement of a cyclical theory adumbrated by Arnold Toynbee.
The other contributors besides the editors are David Wilkinson (chapter 7), a 'civilizationist' who belongs to a strand of political science inspired by Arnold Toynbee (and reproducing some of his problems); and Samir Amin (chapter 8), whose non-Western Marxism aligns more with Wallerstein than Frank & Gills in its treatment of the ancient world.
In his book A Study of History, Arnold Toynbee identified 21 major civilizations; only seven or eight of them exist in the world today.
History is real too - not, as Arnold Toynbee has suggested it can be for the misguided, just something unpleasant that happens to other people; perhaps, as Warren himself once observed, it is also a continual rebuke to the present.
These religious founders," observed historian Arnold Toynbee, "disagreed with each other in the pictures of what is the nature of the universe, the nature of the spiritual life, the nature of ultimate reality.
His long view of history--which, following Oswald Spengler and Arnold Toynbee, sees civilizations as caught up in great cycles of rise and decline--lends hope to his realist colleagues.
The pope is unlikely to engage such protest directly, focusing instead on his long-term project of promoting Catholicism in the secular West as a "creative minority"--a term he borrows from British historian Arnold Toynbee.
Arnold Toynbee was invited to spend about five months in this country.
Ikeda has carried out and published dialogues with leading thinkers from different cultures and traditions, including British historian Arnold Toynbee, two-time Nobel prize winner Linus Pauling and peace scholar Johan Galtung.