Archaea

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Archaea

Evolutionary biology
One of the three domains of living organisms: Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryota. While Archaea are single-celled, they are unlike bacteria given their independent evolutionary history. Archaea differ from Eukaryota in their ribosomal structure and the presence—in some—of introns in the genome, as well as other features (e.g., different membrane composition).
 
Molecular biology
Archaea are of interest in biotechnology as they have unique biochemical features (e.g., enzymes of theromophiles, such as Taq polymerase, the “workhorse” enzyme of PCR) and are extremely stable at high temperatures. Archaea include metabolic oddities (e.g., extreme halophiles, which live in extremely salty environments), methanogens (which produce methane) and sulphur-dependant extreme thermophiles (which can live in extremely hot environments).

Archaea phyla
• Crenarchaeota
• Euryarchaeota
• Korarchaeota
• Nanoarchaeota
• Thaumarchaeota (recently proposed)

Archaea

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References in periodicals archive ?
The increased cholesterol substrate also leads to increased archaeal growth and digoxin synthesis due to metabolic channeling to the mevalonate pathway.
The [alpha] subunit of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA), the enzyme which catalyses the first step in the ammonia oxidation reaction, has been used by numerous authors as a functional gene marker to detect the bacterial and archaeal ammonia-oxidising populations (for review see Junier et al.
Energetics and catabolism; respiration, lithotrophy, and photolysis; biosynthesis; and food and industrial microbiology are covered next, followed by discussion of bacteria, archaeal, and eukaryotic diversity; microbial ecology; and microbes and the global environment.
in conjunction with Yale University and Celera Genomics, have published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences an analysis of the genome sequence and annotation of the smallest archaeal genome discovered to date, Nanoarchaeum equitans.
Studies have shown that the archaeal flagellum is an unique structure as it functionally resembles the bacterial flagellum, but structurally it is a simple type IV pilus.
The persistence of bacterial and methanogenic archaeal communities residing in the rumen of yong lambs.
The integration of nanoarchaea and viroids in to the eukaryotic and human genome produces a chimera which can multiply producing biofilm like multicellular structures having a mixed archaeal, viroidal, prokaryotic and eukaryotic characters which is a regression from the multicellular eukaryotic tissue.
The topics include DNA replication and cell cycle, central metabolism, protein translocation into and across archaeal cytoplasmic membranes, and archaeosome vaccines.
Through its collaboration with the laboratory of Professor Karl Stetter of the University of Regensburg and Celera Genomics, an Applera Corporation business, Diversa has completed the sequencing and annotation of the smallest archaeal genome discovered to date, Nanoarchaeum equitans.
There was increase in cytochrome F420 indicating archaeal growth in multiple sclerosis , systemic lupus erythematosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Eleven of the papers are literature reviews on such topics as the natural history of the archaeal domain, features of the genomes, genetics, chromatin and regulation, DNA replication and the cell cycle, DNA repair, transcriptional mechanism, and biotechnology.