ampicillin sodium

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ampicillin sodium

Apo-Ampi (CA), Novo-Ampicillin (CA), Nu-Ampi (CA), Penbritin (CA) (UK), Rimacillin (UK)

Pharmacologic class: Aminopenicillin

Therapeutic class: Anti-infective

Pregnancy risk category B

Action

Destroys bacteria by inhibiting bacterial cell-wall synthesis during microbial multiplication

Availability

Capsules: 250 mg, 500 mg

Oral suspension: 125 mg/5 ml, 250 mg/5 ml

Powder for injection: 125 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg, 1 g, 2 g, 10 g

Indications and dosages

Respiratory tract, skin, and soft-tissue infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae, staphylococci, and streptococci

Adults and children weighing 40 kg (88 lb) or more: 250 to 500 mg I.V. or I.M. q 6 hours

Adults and children weighing less than 40 kg (88 lb): 25 to 50 mg/kg/day I.M. or I.V. in divided doses q 6 to 8 hours

Adults and children weighing more than 20 kg (44 lb): 250 mg P.O. q 6 hours

Children weighing 20 kg (44 lb) or less: 50 mg/kg/day P.O. in divided doses q 6 to 8 hours

Bacterial meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Escherichia coli, group B streptococci, or Listeria monocytogenes; septicemia caused by Streptococcus species, penicillin G-susceptible staphylococci, enterococci, E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, or Salmonella species

Adults: 150 to 200 mg/kg/day by continuous I.V. infusion or I.M. injection in equally divided doses q 3 to 4 hours, to a maximum dosage of 14 g

Children: 100 to 200 mg/kg/day I.V. in divided doses q 3 to 4 hours

GI or urinary tract infections, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in women

Adults and children weighing more than 40 kg (88 lb): 500 mg I.M. or I.V. q 6 hours

Adults and children weighing 40 kg (88 lb) or less: 50 to 100 mg/kg/day I.M. or I.V. in equally divided doses q 6 to 8 hours

Endocarditis prophylaxis for dental, oral, or upper respiratory tract procedures

Adults: 2 g I.M. or I.V. within 30 minutes before procedure

Children: 50 mg/kg I.V. or I.M. within 30 minutes before procedure

Prevention of bacterial endocarditis before GI or GU surgery or instrumentation

High-risk adults: 2 g I.M. or I.V. with gentamicin 1.5 mg/kg I.M. or I.V. within 30 minutes before procedure. Six hours later, give ampicillin 1 g I.M. or I.V., or amoxicillin 1 g P.O.

High-risk children: 50 mg/kg I.M. or I.V. with 1.5 mg/kg of gentamicin I.M. or I.V. within 30 minutes before procedure; 6 hours later, give ampicillin 25 mg/kg I.M. or I.V. or ampicillin 25 mg/kg P.O.

Moderate-risk adults: 2 g I.M. or I.V. within 30 minutes before procedure Moderate-risk children: 50 mg/kg I.M. or I.V. within 30 minutes before procedure

Prophylaxis for neonatal group B streptococcal disease

Adult women: During labor, loading dose of 2 g I.V.; then 1 g I.V. q 4 hours until delivery

N. gonorrhoeae infections

Adults: Single dose of 3.5 g P.O. given with l g probenecid

Children weighing 40 kg (88 lb) or more: 500 mg I.M. or I.V. q 6 hours

Children weighing less than 40 kg (88 lb): 50 mg/kg/day in divided doses q 6 to 8 hours

Urethritis caused by N. gonorrhoeae (in males)

Adults and children weighing 40 kg (88 lb) or more: 500 mg I.V. or I.M., repeated 8 to 12 hours later

Prophylaxis against sexually transmitted diseases in adult rape victims

Adults: 3.5 g P.O. with l g probenecid as a single dose

Dosage adjustment

• Renal impairment

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to penicillins, cephalosporins, imipenem, or other beta-lactamase inhibitors

Precautions

Use cautiously in:
• severe renal insufficiency, infectious mononucleosis
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients.

Administration

• Ask patient about history of penicillin allergy before giving.
• For I.V. use, mix powder with bacteriostatic water for injection in amount listed on label.
• For direct I.V. injection, give over 10 to 15 minutes. Don't exceed 100 mg/minute.
• For intermittent I.V. infusion, mix with 50 to 100 ml of normal saline solution and give over 15 to 30 minutes.
• Change I.V. site every 48 hours.
• Give oral doses 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals.

Adverse reactions

CNS: lethargy, hallucinations, anxiety, confusion, agitation, depression, fatigue, dizziness, seizures

CV: vein irritation, thrombophlebitis, heart failure

EENT: blurred vision, itchy eyes

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, enterocolitis, gastritis, stomatitis, glossitis, black "hairy" tongue, furry tongue, oral or rectal candidiasis, pseudomembranous colitis

GU: vaginitis, nephropathy, interstitial nephritis

Hematologic: anemia, eosinophilia, agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia

Hepatic: nonspecific hepatitis

Musculoskeletal: arthritis exacerbation

Respiratory: wheezing, dyspnea, hypoxia, apnea

Skin: rash, urticaria, fever, diaphoresis

Other: pain at injection site, superinfections, hyperthermia, hypersensitivity reaction, anaphylaxis, serum sickness

Interactions

Drug-drug.Allopurinol: increased risk of rash

Chloramphenicol: synergistic or antagonistic effects

Hormonal contraceptives: decreased contraceptive effect, increased risk of breakthrough bleeding

Probenecid: decreased renal excretion of ampicillin, increased ampicillin blood level

Tetracyclines: reduced bactericidal effect

Drug-diagnostic tests.Conjugated estrone, estradiol, estriol-glucuronide, total conjugated estriols: increased levels in pregnant patients

Granulocytes, hemoglobin, platelets, white blood cells: decreased levels

Coombs' test, urine glucose: false-positive results

Eosinophils: increased count

Drug-food.Any food: reduced ampicillin efficacy

Patient monitoring

• Watch for signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity reaction.

Monitor for seizures when giving high doses.
• Frequently measure patient's temperature and check for signs and symptoms of superinfection, especially oral or rectal candidiasis.
• Monitor for bleeding tendency or hemorrhage.

Patient teaching

• Tell patient to take oral dose with 8 oz of water 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal.

Instruct patient to immediately report signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity reaction, such as rash, fever, or chills.
• Inform patient that drug lowers resistance to certain other infections. Tell him to report new signs or symptoms of infection, especially in mouth or rectum.
• Advise patient to minimize GI upset by eating small, frequent servings of food and drinking plenty of fluids.

Instruct patient to promptly report unusual bleeding or bruising.
• Tell patient to avoid activities that can cause injury. Advise him to use soft toothbrush and electric razor to avoid gum and skin injury.
• Inform patient taking hormonal contraceptives that drug may reduce contraceptive efficacy. Advise her to use alternative birth control method.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, and foods mentioned above.

ampicillin sodium

the sodium salt of ampicillin, prescribed as an antibiotic to treat gram-positive organisms and some gram-negative organisms.