aortic valve

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valve

 [valv]
a membranous fold in a canal or passage that prevents backward flow of material passing through it.
aortic valve a semilunar valve that separates the left ventricle and the aorta; it opens with end diastole, causing the second heart sound.
atrioventricular v's the cardiac valves between the right atrium and right ventricle (tricuspid valve) and the left atrium and left ventricle (mitral valve).
bicuspid valve mitral valve.
bicuspid aortic valve a congenital anomaly of the aortic valve, caused by incomplete separation of two of the three cusps; it is generally asymptomatic early in life but is predisposed to calcification and stenosis later on.
Braschi valve a one-way valve put into the inspiratory limb of a ventilator circuit in order to measure the intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure.
cardiac v's valves that control flow of blood through and from the heart.
coronary valve a valve at the entrance of the coronary sinus into the right atrium.
flail mitral valve a mitral valve having a cusp that has lost its normal support (as in ruptured chordae tendineae) and flutters in the blood stream.
heart v's cardiac valves.
Heimlich valve a small one-way valve used for chest drainage, emptying into a flexible collection device; the valve prevents return of gases or fluids into the pleural space. The Heimlich valve is less than 13 cm (5 inches) long and facilitates patient ambulation; it can be used in many patients instead of a traditional water seal drainage system.
ileocecal valve (ileocolic valve) the valve guarding the opening between the ileum and cecum.
mitral valve the cardiac valve between the left atrium and left ventricle, usually having two cusps (anterior and posterior). Called also bicuspid valve.
Valves of the heart. The right heart pumps the venous blood into the lungs. The oxygenated blood returns from the lungs into the left atrium and is propelled by the left ventricle into the aorta. The insets show closed valves: the tricuspid valve has three leaflets, whereas the mitral valve has two leaflets. The aortic and pulmonary artery valves have three leaflets and resemble one another except for the fact that the coronary arteries originate from behind the cusps in the aorta. From Damjanov, 1996.
posterior urethral valve any of various types of congenital folds across the proximal part of the male urethra near the seminal colliculus, the most common cause of urethral obstruction in male infants.
pulmonary valve (pulmonic valve) the pocketlike cardiac valve that protects the orifice between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
pyloric valve a prominent fold of mucous membrane at the pyloric orifice of the stomach.
semilunar v's the cardiac valves that have semilunar cusps; see aortic valve and pulmonary valve.
thebesian valve coronary valve.
tricuspid valve the cardiac valve guarding the opening between the right atrium and right ventricle.
valve of vein (venous v's) any of the small cusps or folds found in the tunica intima of many veins, serving to prevent backflow of blood.

a·or·tic valve

[TA]
the valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta, consisting of three fibrous semilunar cusps (valvules), located in the adult in anterior, right posterior, and left posterior positions; they are named, however, in accordance with their embryonic derivation in which the anteriorly located cusp is the right cusp (above which the right coronary artery arises), the left posteriorly positioned cusp is designated as the left cusp (above which the left coronary artery arises), and the right posteriorly positioned cusp is designated as the posterior or noncoronary cusp.
Synonym(s): valva aortae [TA]

aortic valve

a valve in the heart between the left ventricle and the aorta. It is composed of three semilunar cusps that close in diastole to prevent blood from flowing back into the left ventricle from the aorta. The three cusps are separated by sinuses that resemble tiny buckets when they are filled with blood. These cup-shaped flaps grow from the lining of the aorta and, in systole, open to allow oxygenated blood to flow from the left ventricle into the aorta and on to the peripheral circulation. Compare mitral valve, pulmonary valve, tricuspid valve.

aortic valve

Anatomy A 3-leaflet valve at the base of the aorta which opens during systole–left ventricular contraction, then shuts during distole–atrial contraction preventing the backwash of oxygenated blood from the aorta into the ventricle

a·or·tic valve

(ā-ōr'tik valv) [TA]
The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta, consisting of three fibrous semilunar cusps (valvules). They are named in accordance with their embryonic derivation: the anteriorly located cusp is the right cusp (above which the right coronary artery arises), the left posteriorly positioned cusp is the left cusp (above which the left coronary artery arises), and the right posteriorly positioned cusp is the posterior or noncoronary cusp.

aortic valve

The three-cusp valve at the origin of the AORTA that allows easy movement of blood from the left VENTRICLE of the heart into the aorta but prevents its backward flow.

Aortic valve

A fold in the channel leading from the aorta to the left ventricle of the heart. The aortic valve directs blood flow that has received oxygen from the lungs to the aorta which transmits blood to the rest of the body.

a·or·tic valve

(ā-ōr'tik valv) [TA]
The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta, consisting of three fibrous semilunar cusps (valvules).

aortic valve,

n a valve in the heart between the left ventricle and the aorta; also known as the tricuspid valve.

aortic

pertaining to or emanating from the aorta. See also aortic arch.

aortic aneurysm
occurs most often in dogs, where it is caused by Spirocerca lupi larvae, turkeys and primates, causing dyspnea, cyanosis and coughing. May be congenital affecting the aortic trunk and the arch sometimes associated with aneurysm of an aortic sinus. See also copper nutritional deficiency.
aortic aneurysm, inherited
see inherited aortic aneurysm.
aortic annulus fibrosus
the fibrous ring in the wall of the root of the aorta. In the bovine heart the ring carries the ossa cordis (see os2 cordis).
aortic base rupture
rupture of the vessel just above the semilunar valves.
aortic bodies
small neurovascular structures on either side of the aorta in the region of the aortic arch. The left body is located at the angle between the left subclavian artery and the aorta, and the right at the junction of the right subclavian and right common carotid arteries. They contain chemical receptors which send impulses through the afferent branches of the vagus nerve and are involved in regulating respiration so as to ensure an appropriate partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood.
aortic body tumors
single or multiple nodules within the pericardial sac near the base of the heart. Malignant tumors may invade the anterior mediastinum. Called also heart base tumor.
aortic bulb
the dilated part of the aorta at its origin, caused by the swellings of the aortic sinuses.
aortic coarctation
constriction of the aorta at the site of entry of the ductus arteriosus causing a syndrome similar to that of stenosis of the aortic valve.
aortic cystic medionecrosis
pools of ground substance within the elastic media of the aorta. May predispose to arterial aneurysm but this material is present in the aortas of normal horses.
aortic depressor nerve
pressure receptors in the aortic arch and thoracic aorta which assist in maintaining circulatory equilibrium by communicating pressure changes through the aortic depressor nerve, an afferent branch of the vagus nerve; stimulation causes heart slowing and vasodilation.
aortic dextraposition
the aorta receives blood from the right ventricle. There are a number of variations of the basic defect. The common one is the aorta overriding the septum, which is defective, so that the aorta receives blood from both ventricles. The clinical syndrome includes dyspnea and cyanosis from birth, usually with a loud systolic murmur. Affected animals are not viable.
aortic embolism
occurs in cats in association with feline cardiomyopathy and rarely in dogs. Acute pain with paresis to paralysis in the hindlegs, cold, cyanotic feet and no femoral pulse are signs of the condition.
aortic hiatus
an opening in the diaphragm through which the aorta, thoracic duct, the right and/or left azygos veins pass.
aortic-ilial embolism
see iliac artery thrombosis.
aortic mineralization
is one of the early lesions in poisoning by plants that induce mineralization of tissues, e.g. solanummalacoxylon. In combination with lesions in the myocardium causes a syndrome of congestive heart failure.
aortic nerve
see cardiac depressor nerve.
aortic palpation
the aorta is easily palpable per rectum in cattle and horses; valuable as a clinical sign only in cases of thrombosis at the bifurcation; incision at this point has been used as a means of euthanasia in an emergency.
aortic-pulmonary window
an anomaly of the aorta in which there is an opening between the ascending portion of the aorta and the pulmonary artery; clinical signs are similar to those of patent ductus arteriosus, but surgical correction is much more difficult.
aortic regurgitation
see valvular regurgitation.
aortic root
the part of the aorta attached to the atrioventricular fibrous rings and myocardium.
aortic rupture
1. in horses is caused by weakening of the wall of the aorta by migrating strongyle larvae. In cattle the cause may be onchocerciasis, in pigs experimental diets deficient in copper. Sudden death results from cardiac tamponade or dissecting aneurysm into the ventricular muscle.
2. sudden death in growing turkeys due to dissecting aneurysmal rupture of the aorta and death due to internal hemorrhage; the cause is unknown. Copper deficiency is suspected as a cause in several animal species.
aortic sac
the merged ventral aortae of the embryo which supplies blood to the aortic arches.
aortic septal defect
a congenital anomaly in which there is abnormal communication between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary artery just above the semilunar valves.
aortic sinus
the three pouch-like dilatations of the aortic bulb which carry the cusps of the aortic valve. The coronary arteries arise from the left caudal and the cranial sinuses.
aortic subvalvular stenosis
in dogs and pigs is possibly an inherited defect. Characterized by stenosis of the aorta just below the semilunar valves. In pigs, it causes congestive heart failure in the newborn, but in affected dogs severity increases with age so that clinical effects may not be apparent until the patients are older.
aortic thromboembolism
thrombosis is the usual forerunner of embolism, pieces of the thrombus breaking off the main mass and lodging in more distal parts of the vascular system. See also aortic embolism (above), verminous mesenteric arteritis, iliac artery thrombosis.
Enlarge picture
Aortic thromboembolism in a cat. By permission from Nelson RW, Couto CG, Small Animal Internal Medicine, Mosby, 2003
aortic valve
the valve at the entrance to the aorta from the left ventricle made up of three semilunar leaflets or valvulae.
aortic valve rupture
rupture of the medial cusp is recorded as a cause of sudden death in horses usually as a sequel to endocarditis.
aortic valvular disease
stenosis is rarely an acquired disorder, but may be an inherited defect in several species. In cats and rarely dogs, restrictive cardiomyopathy may be a cause of subvalvular aortic obstruction. Valvular incompetence may be congenital or acquired and results in diastolic overloading of the left ventricle with a characteristic water-hammer pulse and diastolic murmur. See also aortic stenosis, aortic subvalvular stenosis (above).
aortic vestibule
the cranial part of the left ventricular cavity leading to the root of the aorta in the avian heart.

valve

1. a membranous fold in a canal or passage that prevents backward flow of material passing through it.
2. a mechanical device to regulate the flow of liquid or gas from an area of higher pressure to one of lower pressure.
3. automatic valve which maintains a steady vacuum in the system of a mechanical milking machine.

Adam's pressure reducing valve
see reducing valve (below).
aortic valve
see aortic valve.
atrioventricular v's
the valves between the right atrium and right ventricle (tricuspid valve) and the left atrium and left ventricle (mitral valve).
bicuspid valve
mitral valve.
cardiac v's
valves that control flow of blood through and from the heart. See also aortic valve, mitral valve, pulmonary valve, tricuspid valve.
coronary valve
a valve at entrance of the coronary sinus into right atrium.
flair valve
a cardiac valve having a cusp that has lost its normal support (as in ruptured chordae tendineae) and flutters in the bloodstream.
ileocecal valve, ileocolic valve
see ileocecal valve.
nonreturn valve
in anesthetic circuits, it prevents exhaled gas from returning to the patient.
portal valve
regulates the amount of venous blood entering the kidney.
pressure reducing valve
see reducing valve (below).
pyloric valve
a prominent fold of mucous membrane at the pyloric orifice of the stomach.
reducing valve
a special valve used on anesthetic machines and which reduces the pressure of the gas reaching the exit valve so that control of the flow is made easier. Called also regulator.
semilunar v's
valves made up of semilunar segments or cusps (valvulae semilunares), guarding the entrances into the aorta and pulmonary artery.
thebesian valve
coronary valve.
valve tube
a thermionic diode that permits the flow of electric current in an x-ray machine in only one direction.

Patient discussion about aortic valve

Q. How does alcohol affect someone who has been diagnosed with aortic valve stenosis? My brother has been diagnosed with aortic valve stenosis and also is a smoker and does drink alcohol on the weekends. He knows that he should stop smoking but what about the effects of alcohol? Does this also contribute to his stenosis?

A. Alcohol changes blood pressure and speed of the heart- that is not a good idea if you have an Aortic stenosis. Could probably makes things worst. I would avoid alcohol… but he should ask GP.

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