Mycobacterium

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Mycobacterium

 [mi″ko-bak-tēr´e-um]
a genus of gram-positive, aerobic, acid-fast bacteria, occurring as slightly curved or straight rods. It contains many species, including the highly pathogenic organisms that cause tuberculosis (M. tuberculo´sis) and leprosy (M. lep´rae). M. a´vium causes tuberculosis in birds and pigs and pulmonary disease in humans. M. bo´vis is the bovine tubercle bacillus and can cause tuberculosis in humans who drink infected milk (strict testing of cattle makes this uncommon in developed countries); an attenuated strain is used to prepare BCG vaccine. M. chelo´nae is an opportunistic pathogen that causes synovial lesions, gluteal abscesses, and gross lesions in various organs. M. fortu´itum causes lesions of the lung, bone, or soft tissue following trauma. M. haemo´philum causes skin lesions. M. ho´minis is a common inhabitant of the vagina and cervix and causes infections of the male and female reproductive tracts, as well as respiratory disease and pharyngitis. M. intracellula´re occasionally causes chronic pulmonary disease in adults and lymph node infection in children. M. kansa´sii causes a tuberculosis-like disease. M. mari´num (also known as M. bal´nei) is the agent of swimming pool granuloma.

mycobacterium

 [mi″ko-bak-tē″re-um] (L.)
1. an individual organism of the genus Mycobacterium.
2. a slender, acid-fast microorganism resembling the bacillus that causes tuberculosis.
nontuberculous mycobacteria mycobacteria other than M. tuberculosis or M. bovis, consisting of nonpathogens and pathogens causing opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients and infections in otherwise normal individuals.

Mycobacterium

(mī'kō-bak-tē'rē-ŭm),
A genus of aerobic, nonmotile bacteria (family Mycobacteriaceae) containing gram-positive, acid-fast, slender, straight or slightly curved rods; slender filaments occasionally occur, but branched forms rarely are produced. Parasitic and saprophytic species occur. Several of species are associated with infections in immunocompromised people, especially those with AIDS. The type species is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is the type genus of the family Mycobacteriaceae.
[myco- + bacterium]

Mycobacterium

/My·co·bac·te·ri·um/ (-bak-tēr´e-um) a genus of gram-positive, acid-fast bacteria (family Mycobacteriaceae), including M. a´vium-intracellula´re, a complex that causes opportunistic infections in patients with HIV infection, M. bal´nei (M. mari´num), the cause of swimming pool granuloma; M. bo´vis, the cause of cattle tuberculosis, transmitted to humans through milk; M. kansa´sii, the cause of a tuberculosis-like disease; M. le´prae, the cause of leprosy; and M. tuberculo´sis (the tubercle bacillus), the cause of tuberculosis, usually of the lungs.

mycobacterium

/my·co·bac·te·ri·um/ (mi″ko-bak-tēr´e-um) pl. mycobacte´ria   an individual organism of the genus Mycobacterium.
anonymous mycobacteria , atypical mycobacteria nontuberculous mycobacteria.
Group I–IV mycobacteria  see nontuberculous mycobacteria.
nontuberculous mycobacteria  mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M. bovis ; they are divided into four groups, I–IV, on the basis of several physical characteristics.

mycobacterium

(mī′kō-băk-tîr′ē-əm)
n. pl. mycobac·teria (-tîr′ē-ə)
Any of various rod-shaped, aerobic, often pathogenic bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium, including the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy.

my′co·bac·ter′i·al adj.

Mycobacterium

[mī′kōbaktir′ē·əm]
Etymology: Gk, mykes + bakterion, small rod
a genus of rod-shaped acid-fast bacteria having two significant pathogenic species: Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, and M. tuberculosis, which causes tuberculosis. M. avium complex or M. avium-intracellulare disseminated infection may occur in AIDS and cause cervical adenitis in children and pulmonary disease in immunodeficient patients.
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis colonies
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Mycobacterium leprae from a skin biopsy from a patient with lepromatous leprosy

Mycobacterium

A genus of obligate aerobic bacteria, family Mycobacteriaceae, order Actinomycetales. All myobacteria are capable of producing the typical chronic inflammation, Langhans’ giant cells and caseating necrosis, and are indistinguishable by acid-fast staining (due to the high lipid concentration in the outer cell wall). Skin is the usual portal of entry for non-tuberculous mycobacteria.

Mycobacterium

A genus of obligate aerobic bacteria, family Mycobacteriaceae, order Actinomycetales; all are capable of producing the typical chronic inflammation, Langhans' giant cells and caseating necrosis, and are indistinguishable by acid-fast staining–due to the high lipid concentration in the outer cell wall; skin is the usual portal of entry for non-TB mycobacteria. See Acid-fast stain, Atypical mycobacteria, Buruli ulcer, Langhans' giant cells, MOTT, Nontuberculous mycobacteria, Prosector's wart, Runyon classification, Scrofula, Tuberculosis.

My·co·bac·te·ri·um

(mī'kō-bak-tēr'ē-ŭm)
A genus of aerobic, nonmotile bacteria (family Mycobacteriaceae) containing gram-positive, acid-fast, slender, straight or slightly curved rods; slender filaments occasionally occur, but branched forms rarely are produced. Parasitic and saprophytic species occur. Some species are associated with infections in immunocompromised people, especially those with AIDS. The type species is M. tuberculosis. It is the type genus of the family Mycobacteriaceae.
[myco- + bacterium]

Mycobacterium

(mi?ko-bak-tir'e-um) [ myco- + bacterium]
A genus of acid-fast, nonmotile, non–spore-forming bacilli of the family Mycobacteriaceae, which includes the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy. The organisms are slender, nonmotile, gram-positive rods and do not produce spores or capsules.

Species include M. africanum, M. avium intracellulare, M. bovis, M. chelonei, M. fortuitum, M. gastri, M. gordonae, M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. terrae, M. triviale, M. smegmatis, and M. xenopi.

Mycobacterium bovis

The causative species of tuberculosis in cows and, less commonly, in humans.

Mycobacterium kansasii

A causative species of tuberculosis-like pulmonary disease in humans.

Mycobacterium leprae

The causative species of leprosy.

Mycobacterium marinum

An atypical mycobacterium that thrives in water and produces skin infection resembling sporotrichosis. It is the cause of swimming pool granuloma.

nontuberculous Mycobacterium

Abbreviation: NTM
Any mycobacterium that does not cause tuberculosis. There are four main classes. Three of these groups grow more slowly than M. tuberculosis and one group grows more rapidly. These organisms may cause various skin, lung, or other conditions or they may be harmless.

Mycobacterium triplex

An emerging but still uncommon acid-fast bacillus that grows slowly. It differs from M. avium in having distinct mycolic acids and ribosomal RNA.
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MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS: Acid-fast bacillus in sputum (orig. mag. ×500)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

The causative agent of tuberculosis in humans. See: tuberculosis; illustration
illustration

Mycobacterium ulcerans

A causative agent of infections of the skin and the underlying soft tissues. It is a common cause of illness in tropical and subtropical Africa and South America, where it is responsible for Buruli ulcer. It is thought to be the third most common disease-causing mycobacterium (after M. tuberculosis and M. leprae) in humans.

Mycobacterium

A genus of ACID FAST bacteria that contains a number of species causing TUBERCULOSIS in humans and other animals and HANSEN'S DISEASE in humans. Species of medical importance include Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium ulcerans .

Mycobacterium

genus of aerobic, Gram-positive bacteria causing chronic diseases
  • Mycobacterium leprae; Hansen's bacillus causes Hansen's disease (leprosy)

  • Mycobacterium marinum causes so-called 'swimming-pool granuloma', usually affecting feet

  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Koch's bacillus causes human tuberculosis

  • Mycobacterium ulcerans causes Buruli ulcer, often affecting feet and legs

My·co·bac·te·ri·um

(mī'kō-bak-tēr'ē-ŭm)
A genus of aerobic, nonmotile bacteria. Some species are associated with infections in immunocompromised people, especially those with AIDS. The type species is M. tuberculosis.
[myco- + bacterium]

Mycobacterium

(mī´kōbakter´ēəm),
n a genus of rod-shaped, acid-fast bacteria.

Mycobacterium

the only genus in the family Mycobacteriaceae of bacteria; slender acid-fast rods which may be straight or slightly curved. They may produce filaments or cocci. The most serious disease caused by members of this genus is tuberculosis. M. fortuitum, M. chelonea, M. marinum are listed as causes of piscine tuberculosis. Other species, including M. aquae, M. kansasii and M. scrofulaceum, may occasionally cause disease in a number of different species.

Mycobacterium avium
found mostly in birds but occasionally also in other animals and in humans. The tubercle bacillus of birds, it causes avian tuberculosis.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
causes Johne's disease in cattle, sheep, goats, deer and camelids. Previously called M. johnei and M. paratuberculosis.
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare
complex see M. intracellulare (below).
Mycobacterium bovis
the tubercle bacillus of the bovine, it causes tuberculosis in many animal species and humans.
Mycobacterium chelonei, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium phlei, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium thermoresistible
cause disease in a number of animal species, including mastitis in cattle and cutaneous mycobacterial granuloma in cats and dogs. See also opportunist (atypical) mycobacteria.
Mycobacterium farcinogenes, Mycobacterium senegalense
associated with bovine farcy.
Mycobacterium genovense
causes mycobacteriosis in birds.
Mycobacterium intracellulare
found in tuberculin-positive cattle and causes limited lymph node lesions in pigs. Closely related to M. avium and also described as M. avium-intracellulare complex.
Mycobacterium johnei
see M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (above).
Mycobacterium kansasii
causes tuberculosis-like disease in pigs, deer and cattle.
Mycobacterium leprae
the cause of leprosy in humans.
Mycobacterium lepraemurium
causes murine and feline leprosy.
Mycobacterium marinum
found in water, it causes tuberculosis in fish and skin ulcers in humans.
Mycobacterium microti
the vole bacillus; lesions sometimes occur in other species.
Mycobacterium paratuberculosis
previously called M. johnei. See M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (above).
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
the tubercle bacillus of humans, but found also in monkeys and pigs, and rarely in cattle, dogs and parrots.
Mycobacterium ulcerans
causes skin ulcers in humans and cats.
Mycobacterium xenopi
causes mycobacterial granuloma in cats and lymph node lesions in pigs.
References in periodicals archive ?
In total, antimycobacterial drug-resistance to rifampicin was documented in 16 of the 43 patients who had DST done on the drug-sensitive wards.
Antimycobacterial constituents from Juniperus procera, Ferula communis and Plumbago zeylanica and their in vitro synergistic activity with isonicotinic acid hydrazide.
Among azoles, many 1,2,4-triazole derivatives possess diverse pharmacological properties [7-23], such as antibacterial [7,8], antifungal [7,9], antimycobacterial [10,15], antiviral [11], anti-inflammatory [12], anticonvulsant [13], antidepressant [14], antitubercular [15], antitumoral [16], antihypertensive [17], analgesic [18], enzyme inhibitor [19], hypoglycemic[20], sedative, hypnotic [21], antiparasitic, herbicidal, insecticidal and plant growth activities [22].