antimicrobial

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Related to Antimicrobials: Antimicrobial agents

an·ti·mi·cro·bi·al

(an'tē-mī-krō'bē-ăl),
Tending to destroy microbes, to prevent their multiplication or growth, or to prevent their pathogenic action.

antimicrobial

/an·ti·mi·cro·bi·al/ (-mi-kro´be-al)
1. killing microorganisms or suppressing their multiplication or growth.
2. an agent with such effects.

antimicrobial

(ăn′tē-mī-krō′bē-əl, ăn′tī-) also

antimicrobic

(-bĭk)
adj.
Capable of destroying or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms: antimicrobial drugs.

an′ti·mi·cro′bial n.

antimicrobial

[-mīkrō′bē·əl]
Etymology: Gk, anti + mikros, small, bios, life
1 pertaining to a substance that kills microorganisms or inhibits their growth or replication.
2 an antimicrobial agent. Also called antimicrobic. See also antibiotic.

antimicrobial

adjective Referring to an agent or mechanism that kills or inhibits the growth or reproduction of microbes.
 
noun An agent that attenuates, kills or inhibits the growth or reproduction of microbes.

antimicrobial

adjective Referring to an agent or mechanism that kills or inhibits the growth or reproduction of microbes noun An agent that attenuates, kills or inhibits the growth or reproduction of microbes

an·ti·mi·cro·bi·al

(an'tē-mī-krō'bē-ăl)
Tending to destroy microbes, to prevent their multiplication or growth, or to prevent their pathogenic action.

antimicrobial

Able to destroy microorganisms.

Antimicrobial

A plant substance that acts to inhibit the growth of harmful microorganisms, or acts to destroy them.
Mentioned in: Echinacea

antimicrobial

agents (including antibiotics) that destroy, prevent development of, and prevent pathogenic action of microorganisms (Table 1)
Table 1: Indicative antibiotic/antimicrobial regimes
Infection siteIndicative antibiotic regime
Skin
ImpetigoLocalized infection: topical fusidic acid (or mupirocin if MRSA+ve); dicloxacillin; azithromycin
Widespread infection: oral flucloxacillin or erythromycin (if penicillin-sensitive)
ErysipelasPhenoxymethylpenicillin or erythromycin
CellulitisBenzylpenicillin and flucloxacillin (or erythromycin if penicillin-sensitive); co-amoxiclav
Infected ulcerTopical antibiotics: mupirocin, fusidic acid
Topical antiseptics: povidone-iodine
Infected burns (e.g. caustic burns)Silver sulfadiazine
Animal/human bitesCo-amoxiclav (doxycyline + metronidazole if penicillin-sensitive)
OsteomyelitisFlucloxacillin (clindamycin if penicillin-sensitive)
Vancomycin if MRSA+ve or Staphylococcus epidermidis -+ve
Sodium fusidate (has good bone penetration)
Septic arthritisFlucloxacillin + fusidic acid (clindamycin if penicillin-sensitive)
Vancomycin if MRSA+ve or Staphylococcus epidermidis -+ve
Prevention of infection in orthopaedic surgerySingle dose of intravenous cefuroxime or intravenous flucloxacillin
Staphylococcus speciesSystemic flucloxacillin; fusidic acid (erythromycin if penicillin-sensitive)
Streptococcus speciesSystemic penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, phenyloxymethylpenicillin
Beta-haemolytic streptococciSystemic phenyloxymethylpenicillin
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Systemic ciprofloxacin; ticarcillin + clavulanic acid; azlocillin; piperacillin
Anaerobic infectionSystemic metronidazole (also as topical beads in the treatment of anaerobe-infected ulcers)

Note: Swab of the wound/exudate is taken to ensure the most effective antibiotic is prescribed; the patient is started on a broad-spectrum antimicrobial and the medication modified as necessary once the laboratory results confirm the regime of choice.

MRSA, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus .

antimicrobial (anˈ·tē·mī·krōˑ·bē·l),

n a substance that combats microbial infection by killing microorganisms or inhibiting their replication or growth.

an·ti·mi·cro·bi·al

(an'tē-mī-krō'bē-ăl)
Tending to destroy microbes, to prevent their multiplication or growth, or to prevent their pathogenic action.

antimicrobial

1. killing microorganisms, or suppressing their multiplication or growth.
2. an agent that kills microorganisms or suppresses their multiplication or growth.
Antimicrobial agents are classified functionally according to the manner in which they adversely affect a microorganism. Some interfere with the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. This results in cell lysis because the contents of the bacterial cell are hypertonic and therefore under high osmotic pressure. A weakening of the cell wall causes the cell to rupture, spill its contents, and be destroyed. The penicillins, cephalosporins and bacitracin are examples of this group of antimicrobials.
A second group of antimicrobial agents interfere with the synthesis of nucleic acids. Without DNA and RNA synthesis a microorganism cannot replicate or translate genetic information. Examples of antimicrobials that exert this kind of action are griseofulvin, fluoroquinolones and rifampicin.
A third group of antimicrobial agents change the permeability of the cell membrane, causing a leakage of metabolic substrates essential to the life of the microorganism. Their action can be either bacteriostatic or bactericidal. Examples include amphotericin B and polymyxin B.
A fourth group of antimicrobial agents interfere with metabolic processes within the microorganism. They are structurally similar to natural metabolic substrates, but since they do not function normally, they interrupt metabolic processes. Most of these agents are bacteriostatic. Examples include the sulfonamides, aminosalicylic acid (PAS) and isoniazid (INH).
A fifth group interfere with translation of proteins by the ribosome. This action may be bacteriocidal, if errors in translation are induced (aminoglycosides) or bacteriostatic, if translation is inhibited (macrolides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol).

antimicrobial resistance
ability of a microorganism to resist the effects of an antimicrobial agent. May be an intrinsic characteristic or acquired by selection for mutation or by acquisition of a resistance gene from other microorganisms.
antimicrobial sensitivity test
an in vitro test of the effectiveness of selected antibacterial agents against bacteria recovered from a patient. Paper disks impregnated with various agents are placed on an inoculated agar plate (disk diffusion) or the agent is added to broth cultures. Inhibition of growth is interpreted as an indication of bacterial sensitivity to the antibacterial.
subtherapeutic antimicrobial therapy
used mainly in mass medication programs as preventive measures against unspecified infectious diseases. Carries the risks of creating resistant strains of organisms, and of resulting in unacceptable residues in human food.
antimicrobial therapy
antimicrobial agents may be administered topically, orally, or injected. There are special needs for special circumstances. Aquarial fish, for example, may be treated by incorporating the agent in the feed or by injection. Immersing the fish in a tank containing a solution of the agent is satisfactory only for superficial infections because the drug is not absorbed directly through the skin and the intake is very slow.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, narrowing the list to specific antimicrobials is difficult because of the varying availability of product ingredient information, the firm adds.
Increased use of antimicrobials in construction products, however, has resulted in increased scrutiny of the inherent safety of the antimicrobials.
Hence, it is imperative to implement an ASP in the HD unit to help guide the appropriate prescribing of antimicrobials to maximize benefit while minimizing harm to patients.
Resistance to antimicrobials is such an urgent global health priority that the World Health Organization describes it as a looming crisis in which common and treatable infections are becoming life threatening, Minister Joyce said.
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance can render the first line antimicrobials to be ineffective, leading to the use of second or third line agents which may be more toxic and costly.
For ternary combinations, a variety of two antimicrobials were kept constant: lauric arginate-methyl-paraben; lauric arginate-lactate; and lactate-methyl-paraben.
Today, smart antimicrobials are dominated by silver-based materials, although some smart antimicrobials based on photosynthesis are also widely available.
Companies use antimicrobial additives in their products to increase the durability of commercial and residential buildings, electronics and automotive paints.
AS THE COSMETIC and personal care marketplaces continue to respond to the demand for more natural and ecologically friendly ingredients, including antimicrobial agents, cosmetic chemists must learn to adapt to the idiosyncrasies of the wide range of choices available today to satisfy the consumer's wishes.
Antimicrobial agents are naturally occurring, semi-synthetic and synthetic compounds with antimicrobial activity that are used in human and veterinary medicine to prevent and treat infections and for growth promotion in food animals.
The strategies or action plans should also include the following elements: enforcing national legislation that bans all illegal sales of antimicrobials; limiting the use of critically important antibiotics to cases where microbiological diagnosis and susceptibility testing has determined that no other type of antimicrobials will be effective; and limiting prophylactic use of antimicrobials to cases with defined clinical needs.
At its core, antimicrobial stewardship is about the appropriate use of antimicrobials.