antimicrobial

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Related to Antimicrobial agents: antimicrobial drugs

an·ti·mi·cro·bi·al

(an'tē-mī-krō'bē-ăl),
Tending to destroy microbes, to prevent their multiplication or growth, or to prevent their pathogenic action.

antimicrobial

/an·ti·mi·cro·bi·al/ (-mi-kro´be-al)
1. killing microorganisms or suppressing their multiplication or growth.
2. an agent with such effects.

antimicrobial

(ăn′tē-mī-krō′bē-əl, ăn′tī-) also

antimicrobic

(-bĭk)
adj.
Capable of destroying or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms: antimicrobial drugs.

an′ti·mi·cro′bial n.

antimicrobial

[-mīkrō′bē·əl]
Etymology: Gk, anti + mikros, small, bios, life
1 pertaining to a substance that kills microorganisms or inhibits their growth or replication.
2 an antimicrobial agent. Also called antimicrobic. See also antibiotic.

antimicrobial

adjective Referring to an agent or mechanism that kills or inhibits the growth or reproduction of microbes.
 
noun An agent that attenuates, kills or inhibits the growth or reproduction of microbes.

antimicrobial

adjective Referring to an agent or mechanism that kills or inhibits the growth or reproduction of microbes noun An agent that attenuates, kills or inhibits the growth or reproduction of microbes

an·ti·mi·cro·bi·al

(an'tē-mī-krō'bē-ăl)
Tending to destroy microbes, to prevent their multiplication or growth, or to prevent their pathogenic action.

antimicrobial

Able to destroy microorganisms.

Antimicrobial

A plant substance that acts to inhibit the growth of harmful microorganisms, or acts to destroy them.
Mentioned in: Echinacea

antimicrobial

agents (including antibiotics) that destroy, prevent development of, and prevent pathogenic action of microorganisms (Table 1)
Table 1: Indicative antibiotic/antimicrobial regimes
Infection siteIndicative antibiotic regime
Skin
ImpetigoLocalized infection: topical fusidic acid (or mupirocin if MRSA+ve); dicloxacillin; azithromycin
Widespread infection: oral flucloxacillin or erythromycin (if penicillin-sensitive)
ErysipelasPhenoxymethylpenicillin or erythromycin
CellulitisBenzylpenicillin and flucloxacillin (or erythromycin if penicillin-sensitive); co-amoxiclav
Infected ulcerTopical antibiotics: mupirocin, fusidic acid
Topical antiseptics: povidone-iodine
Infected burns (e.g. caustic burns)Silver sulfadiazine
Animal/human bitesCo-amoxiclav (doxycyline + metronidazole if penicillin-sensitive)
OsteomyelitisFlucloxacillin (clindamycin if penicillin-sensitive)
Vancomycin if MRSA+ve or Staphylococcus epidermidis -+ve
Sodium fusidate (has good bone penetration)
Septic arthritisFlucloxacillin + fusidic acid (clindamycin if penicillin-sensitive)
Vancomycin if MRSA+ve or Staphylococcus epidermidis -+ve
Prevention of infection in orthopaedic surgerySingle dose of intravenous cefuroxime or intravenous flucloxacillin
Staphylococcus speciesSystemic flucloxacillin; fusidic acid (erythromycin if penicillin-sensitive)
Streptococcus speciesSystemic penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, phenyloxymethylpenicillin
Beta-haemolytic streptococciSystemic phenyloxymethylpenicillin
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Systemic ciprofloxacin; ticarcillin + clavulanic acid; azlocillin; piperacillin
Anaerobic infectionSystemic metronidazole (also as topical beads in the treatment of anaerobe-infected ulcers)

Note: Swab of the wound/exudate is taken to ensure the most effective antibiotic is prescribed; the patient is started on a broad-spectrum antimicrobial and the medication modified as necessary once the laboratory results confirm the regime of choice.

MRSA, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus .

antimicrobial (anˈ·tē·mī·krōˑ·bē·l),

n a substance that combats microbial infection by killing microorganisms or inhibiting their replication or growth.

an·ti·mi·cro·bi·al

(an'tē-mī-krō'bē-ăl)
Tending to destroy microbes, to prevent their multiplication or growth, or to prevent their pathogenic action.

antimicrobial

1. killing microorganisms, or suppressing their multiplication or growth.
2. an agent that kills microorganisms or suppresses their multiplication or growth.
Antimicrobial agents are classified functionally according to the manner in which they adversely affect a microorganism. Some interfere with the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. This results in cell lysis because the contents of the bacterial cell are hypertonic and therefore under high osmotic pressure. A weakening of the cell wall causes the cell to rupture, spill its contents, and be destroyed. The penicillins, cephalosporins and bacitracin are examples of this group of antimicrobials.
A second group of antimicrobial agents interfere with the synthesis of nucleic acids. Without DNA and RNA synthesis a microorganism cannot replicate or translate genetic information. Examples of antimicrobials that exert this kind of action are griseofulvin, fluoroquinolones and rifampicin.
A third group of antimicrobial agents change the permeability of the cell membrane, causing a leakage of metabolic substrates essential to the life of the microorganism. Their action can be either bacteriostatic or bactericidal. Examples include amphotericin B and polymyxin B.
A fourth group of antimicrobial agents interfere with metabolic processes within the microorganism. They are structurally similar to natural metabolic substrates, but since they do not function normally, they interrupt metabolic processes. Most of these agents are bacteriostatic. Examples include the sulfonamides, aminosalicylic acid (PAS) and isoniazid (INH).
A fifth group interfere with translation of proteins by the ribosome. This action may be bacteriocidal, if errors in translation are induced (aminoglycosides) or bacteriostatic, if translation is inhibited (macrolides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol).

antimicrobial resistance
ability of a microorganism to resist the effects of an antimicrobial agent. May be an intrinsic characteristic or acquired by selection for mutation or by acquisition of a resistance gene from other microorganisms.
antimicrobial sensitivity test
an in vitro test of the effectiveness of selected antibacterial agents against bacteria recovered from a patient. Paper disks impregnated with various agents are placed on an inoculated agar plate (disk diffusion) or the agent is added to broth cultures. Inhibition of growth is interpreted as an indication of bacterial sensitivity to the antibacterial.
subtherapeutic antimicrobial therapy
used mainly in mass medication programs as preventive measures against unspecified infectious diseases. Carries the risks of creating resistant strains of organisms, and of resulting in unacceptable residues in human food.
antimicrobial therapy
antimicrobial agents may be administered topically, orally, or injected. There are special needs for special circumstances. Aquarial fish, for example, may be treated by incorporating the agent in the feed or by injection. Immersing the fish in a tank containing a solution of the agent is satisfactory only for superficial infections because the drug is not absorbed directly through the skin and the intake is very slow.
References in periodicals archive ?
From record surveillance of these studies, the United States FDA has found that clinical antimicrobial resistance is higher for antimicrobial agents that have been in use longer (FDA, 2010).
aeruginosa to antimicrobial agents from data collected from 1993-2002 in the Intensive Care Unit Surveillance Study (ISS) database.
DANMAP collects and presents data on consumption of antimicrobial agents and the occurrence of resistance in indicator bacteria, zoonotic bacteria, and pathogenic bacteria from animals, food, and humans.
For example, he said, a company could claim that the addition of antimicrobial agents to a new surgical gown eliminated contamination by vancomycin-resistant enterococci, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or other pathogens from the surface of the gown, if in vitro data were provided to support this indication.
In drafting these regulations more than 25 years ago, EPA recognized that antimicrobial agents were sometimes added to products to decrease odors or protect them from rot or mildew.
It will also develop and maintain an organism bank for molecular typing and susceptibility testing of new antimicrobial agents.
Additionally, the AIGISRx contains the antimicrobial agents rifampin and minocycline, which are released over a 7 to 10 day period, in order to help provide protection from microbial colonization of the device during surgical implantation.
Administrative cost for intravenous antimicrobial agents is US $10/dose.
Influences of pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of antimicrobial agents and pharmacodynamic (PD) effects specific to the host all contribute to the complex interactions of systems that determine success of antimicrobial treatment, and that cannot be replicated in an in vitro test system.
The migration kinetics of antimicrobial agents into foods;
Hopkins presented the findings in Chicago last month at the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.
In a paper published in the September 2000 issue of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, they wrote, "[W]e have defined a drug concentration threshold above which bacterial cells require the presence of two or more resistance mutations for growth.

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