antimetabolite

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Related to Antimetabolites: topoisomerase inhibitors, plant alkaloids

antimetabolite

 [an″te-, an″ti-mĕ-tab´o-līt]
1. a substance bearing a close structural resemblance to one required for normal physiological functioning, and exerting its effect by interfering with the utilization of the essential metabolite.
2. a class of antineoplastic agents consisting of antimetabolites of substances required for cell growth and replication; the interference with cell function is phase specific, largely in the S phase of the cell cycle. The group includes cladribine, cytarabine, floxuridine, fludarabine, fluorouracil, mercaptopurine, methotrexate, and thioguanine. See also antineoplastic therapy.

an·ti·me·tab·o·lite

(an'tē-me-tab'ō-līt),
A substance that competes with, replaces, or antagonizes a particular metabolite; for example, ethionine is an antimetabolite of methionine.

antimetabolite

/an·ti·me·tab·o·lite/ (an″te-) (an″ti-mĕ-tab´o-līt) a substance bearing a close structural resemblance to one required for normal physiological functioning, and exerting its effect by interfering with the utilization of the essential metabolite.

antimetabolite

(ăn′tē-mĭ-tăb′ə-līt′, ăn′tī-)
n.
A substance that closely resembles an essential metabolite and therefore inhibits physiological reactions involving that metabolite.

an′ti·met′a·bol′ic (-mĕt′ə-bŏl′ĭk) adj.

antimetabolite

[-mətab′əlīt]
Etymology: Gk, anti + metabole, change
a drug or other substance that is an antagonist to or resembles a normal human metabolite and interferes with its function in the body, usually by competing for its receptors or enzymes. Among the antimetabolites used as antineoplastic agents are the folic acid analog methotrexate and the pyrimidine analog fluorouracil. The antineoplastic mercaptopurine, an analog of the nucleotide adenine and the purine base hypoxanthine, is a metabolic antagonist of both compounds. Thioguanine, another member of a large series of purine analogs, interferes with nucleic acid synthesis. Cytarabine, used in the treatment of acute myelocytic leukemia, is a synthetic nucleoside that resembles cytidine and kills cells that actively synthesize deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), apparently by inhibiting the enzyme DNA polymerase.

antimetabolite

Antimetabolic agent Pharmacology Any agent–eg, MTX, 6-mercaptopurine, thioguanine, 5-FU, gemcitabine that is a structural analogue of a native cell metabolite, which either inhibits the enzymes of a particular metabolic pathway or is incorporated during synthesis to produce defective product or prevents replication; anti-metabolites are used as chemotherapeutics, antivirals and as immunosuppressants, and include analogues of purines–eg azathioprine, pyrimidines, folic acid–eg aminopterin, MTX See Azathioprine, Methotrexate.

an·ti·me·tab·o·lite

(an'tē-mĕ-tab'ō-līt)
A substance that competes with, replaces, or antagonizes a particular metabolite; e.g., ethionine is an antimetabolite of methionine.

antimetabolite

An anticancer, or CYTOTOXIC, drug which acts by combining with essential enzymes within cancer cells so as to interfere with their metabolism and growth. To be useful, antimetabolites must be significantly more toxic to cancer cells than to normal cells.

Antimetabolite

A drug that interferes with a cell's growth or ability to multiply.
Mentioned in: Chemotherapy

antimetabolite

a substance bearing a close structural resemblance to one required for normal physiological functioning, and exerting its effect by interfering with the utilization of the essential metabolite.
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In 2009, antimetabolites dominated the NSCLC market with Alimta accounting for nearly three-quarters of sales within this drug class.
TABLE 38 ANTIMETABOLITES TO TREAT AUTOIMMUNE LIVER DISEASE: MARKET SHARE BY MANUFACTURER, 2008 (%) 58
FIGURE 12 ANTIMETABOLITES TO TREAT AUTOIMMUNE LIVER DISEASE: MARKET SHARE BY MANUFACTURER, 2008 (%) 59
TABLE 73 GLOBAL SALES OF ANTIMETABOLITES TO TREAT LIVER DISEASES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2014 ($ MILLIONS) 117
The Chinese anti-tumor drugs can be divided into nine categories: Alkylation Agents, such as nitrogen mustards, ethylene-imines, methanesulfonates, polyatomic alcohols and SarCNU; Anti-metabolite drugs, such as pyrimidine antimetabolites, purine antimetabolites and antifolates; Antibiotics; Plant anti-tumor drugs; Hormone anti-tumor drugs; Platinum metallic anti-tumor drugs; Others; Aided anti-tumor Drugs and immunomodulators.
Although a plethora of platinum-based chemotherapy combinations may be prescribed for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the market is currently driven by chemotherapeutic agents such as the taxanes and antimetabolites, and the increasing use of targeted therapies.
This growth will be fueled by an increased uptake of antimetabolites and targeted therapies.
Nascobal Nasal Spray is also indicated as a supplement for other vitamin B12 deficiencies including: dietary deficiency of vitamin B12 occurring in strict vegetarian diets; malabsorption of vitamin B12 resulting from conditions including HIV infection, AIDS, and Crohn's disease; inadequate secretion of intrinsic factor resulting from lesions that destroy the gastric mucosa and other conditions associated with gastric atrophy including multiple sclerosis, HIV infection, AIDS, certain endocrine disorders, iron deficiency, and subtotal gastrectomy; total gastrectomy; competition for vitamin B12 by intestinal parasites or bacteria; and inadequate utilization of vitamin B12 that may occur if antimetabolites for the vitamin are employed in the treatment of neoplasia.
Townsend's research efforts focused on antimetabolites, an approach that has been successfully employed in the search for potent antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic and anti-cancer agents.
SNS-595 was found to be synergistic when combined with a number of chemotherapeutic drugs, including DNA-damaging agents, antimetabolites and an Hsp90 inhibitor, geldanamycin.
Analysis of prices of six drug classes: platinum drugs, hormonal agents, taxanes, antimetabolites, monoclonal antibodies, and small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors