antileukotriene

(redirected from Antileukotrienes)

an·ti·leu·ko·tri·ene

(an'tē-lū'kō-trī'ēn),
A drug that prevents or alleviates bronchoconstriction in asthma by blocking the production or action of naturally occurring leukotrienes; may also be useful in psoriasis.

Leukotrienes are eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid, which is present in cell membranes. The cysteinyl leukotrienes, which are elaborated by bronchopulmonary mast cells, eosinophils, and probably alveolar macrophages, have been shown to mediate bronchoconstriction induced by exercise, hyperventilation in cold air, aspirin, and inhaled allergens. They act by stimulating a specific receptor, known as cysteinyl leukotriene receptor type 1 (CysLT1). Antileukotrienes having clinical usefulness in asthma include zileuton, which inhibits 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme critical in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes, and leukotriene receptor antagonists (cinalukast, montelukast, zarirlukast, and others). Antileukotrienes reverse bronchconstriction in asthma to a lesser degree than β2-adrenergic agonists, but their effects are additive to those of the latter agents. In chronic asthma, antileukotrienes improve peak flow and FEV1 and reduce the frequency and severity of acute asthmatic attacks, the need for β2-agonists, and the need for corticosteroid rescue. They are particularly effective in the prophylaxis of asthma induced by exercise and aspirin. In contrast, many people with allergic asthma show little or no response. Antileukotrienes are not indicated in the treatment of an acute asthmatic attack or in mild, intermittent asthma controlled adequately with occasional use of inhaled β2-agonists. They have not been recommended as a substitute for inhaled corticosteroids in prophylaxis of asthma. Antileukotrienes are administered orally or by inhalation. Both onset and waning of clinical effects are gradual. Side-effects are minimal, but drug interactions may occur because of interference with cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Rare transitory elevations of hepatic aminotransferase have been reported with some agents.

antileukotriene

Any of a class of agents that either interferes with leukotriene synthesis or antagonises leukotriene receptors, which are as effective as cromolyn or theophylline, and may reduce the amount of inhaled steroids needed to control inflammation.

Antileukotrienes 
LTD4 receptor antagonists (Zafirkulast-Accolate)
 
Pros
LTD4-induced bronchoconstriction, early and late responses, exercise challenge, cold-induced asthma, chronic asthma.
 
5-Lipoxygenase inhibitor (Zileutron-Zyflo)
 
Pros
Asthma induced by exercise, cold, aspirin, bronchial hyperresponsiveness.
 
FLAP inhibitors (5-lipoxygenase-activating protein inhibitor)

Pros
Early and late responses and cold-induced asthma.

antileukotriene

Any of a class of agents that either interfere with leukotriene synthesis or antagonize leukotriene receptors, which are as effective as cromolyn or theophylline, and may ↓ the amount of inhaled steroids needed to control inflammation See Asthma, Leukotrienes, Zafirlukast, Zileuton.
Antileukotrienes
LTD4 receptor antagonists
Zafirkulast-Accolate® Benefits LTD4-induced bronchoconstriction, early and late responses, exercise challenge, cold-induced asthma, chronic asthma
5-Lipoxygenase inhibitor
Zileutron-Zyflo®Benefits asthma induced by exercise, cold, aspirin, bronchial hyperresponsiveness
FLAP inhibitors
None are FDA-approved Benefits early and late responses and cold-induced asthma
.

an·ti·leu·ko·tri·ene

(an'tē-lū-ko-trī'ēn)
A drug that prevents or alleviates bronchoconstriction in asthma by blocking the production or action of naturally occurring leukotrienes; may also be useful in psoriasis.

an·ti·leu·ko·tri·ene

(an'tē-lū-ko-trī'ēn)
A drug that prevents or alleviates bronchoconstriction in asthma by blocking the production or action of naturally occurring leukotrienes; may also be useful in psoriasis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Antileukotrienes are particularly useful in controlling asthma resulting from certain triggers, including exercise-induced asthma, aspirin-induced asthma and, to a lesser extent, allergen-induced asthma.
Antihistamines, cortisone, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, epinephrine, theophylline, cromolyn sodium, and antileukotrienes, such as Singulair or Accolate, are FDA approved for treatment of allergic diseases.
World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA): Chronic rhinitis (CR) drugs that are permitted and not permitted in sport Treatment WADA rules Antihistamines Permitted (WADA 2006) Antileukotrienes Permitted (WADA 2006) Oral steroids Prohibited Topical steroids Require an abbreviated therapeutic use exemption (WADA 2006) Oral beta-2 agonists Prohibited Inhaled salbutamol, Require an abbreviated therapeutic formoterol or use exemption salmeterol Ephedrine Prohibited methylephedrine Pseudoephedrine Prohibited Immunotherapy Permitted Treatment Notes Antihistamines Second-generation antihistamines should be preferred, to avoid cardiotoxic effects and somnolence.
Figure 50: Allergic rhinitis sales of antileukotrienes in the seven major markets by country ($ billion), 2009-2019 122
Allergies in adults are treated by a three-prong approach, as they are in children: the avoidance of potential allergens; the use of medications like antihistamines that do not bring on drowsiness, antileukotrienes, and nasal corticosteroid, sprays to reduce the inflammation; and a series of allergy shots for those with allergies who do not respond to the first two treatments.
and antileukotrienes, and a new chapter on pediatric patients experiencing recurrent respiratory tract infections.
11) Antileukotrienes, such as montelukast, have recently been approved for the treatment of nasal congestion due to AR.
Subjects taking both ICS and antileukotrienes showed no significant associations.
The ARIA guidelines also include a review of the therapeutic agents that are indicated for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, including oral and intranasal antihistamines, intranasal glucocorticosteroids, local chromones, oral and intranasal decongestants, intranasal anticholinergics, and antileukotrienes.
The Winnipeg tests are part of a wider testing program on a series of drugs known as antileukotrienes which work by blocking the effect of leukotrienes and asthma.
Common allergy drugs such as antihistamines or antileukotrienes block only a single mediator.
We conclude that antileukotrienes might play a significant role in controlling polyposis and symptoms secondary to sinonasal disease, and they might be a viable alternative to long-term oral steroid therapy and repeated surgical debridement.