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Years later, extensive characterization of HA and NA antigens of the 1943 and 1947 viruses and comparison of their nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed marked differences in the viruses isolated in these 2 years; studies in a mouse model also showed that the 1943 vaccine afforded no protection to the 1947 virus challenge (24).
All 5 ill workers had serologic evidence of acute histoplasmosis infection, and 3 of the 5 had positive detection for histoplasma antigen in urine collected on 28 August.
This is a preliminary report on the use of a relatively new technique--enzyme-potentiated desensitization (EPD)--that utilizes a mixture of extremely dilute antigens mixed with the enzyme beta-glucuronidase.
Antigen stability, safety and immunogenicity are the key hurdles for novel antigen delivery technologies.
After Kufe's animal testing proved promising, Kugler's group rushed to try similar vaccines in kidney cancer, which has no recognized tumor antigen.
T-cells can only recognize antigen when it is associated with a cell surface component, which they must see at the same time as the antigen.
The expression of influenza antigens identified by AVANT on Select VLPs could provide a novel vaccine candidate, distinct from other influenza VLP vaccine candidates, and could potentially stimulate a stronger immune response.
The antibody levels measured by complement fixation (CF) against phase II Coxiella burnetii antigen was 1:512.
The tumor antigen that is targeted in this project is a protein found on the surface of cancer cells.
Epitope: a specific area on the surface of an antigen (see above) that can cause an immune response and can bind with a specific antibody produced by the immune system.
A critical factor that heavily affects the result of oral sensitization studies is the unscheduled dietary pre-exposure of test animals and their parental generation to the antigen under investigation.
Quantification of skin reactivity to formulate a successful antigen vial for effective immunotherapy is necessary in the management of allergic disease.