antibiotic resistance

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antibiotic resistance

Infectious disease The relative or complete ability of an organism–bacterium, fungus to counteract the desired bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic effect of one or more antimicrobial agents

antibiotic resistance

The natural tendency for bacteria, under the processes of natural selection in an antibiotic-rich environment, to evolve in such a way as to become capable of surviving in spite of these drugs. Antibiotic resistance is a rapidly increasing problem largely as a result of worldwide misuse and overuse of antibiotics in conditions that do not require them. See also ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCI.

antibiotic resistance,

n the ability of certain strains of microorganisms to develop resistance to antibiotics.

antibiotic

1. destructive of life.
2. a chemical substance produced by a microorganism that has the capacity, in dilute solutions, to kill (biocidal activity) or inhibit the growth (biostatic activity) of other microorganisms. Antibiotics that are sufficiently nontoxic to the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases. See also antimicrobial.
3. used as feed additives to animals as growth promotants.

anthracycline a's
a group of antibiotics which have a tetracycline ring structure substituted with the sugar daunosamine. Includes the antineoplastic drugs doxorubicin and daunorubicin.
antineoplastic antibiotic
bactericidal antibiotic
one that kills bacteria.
bacteriostatic antibiotic
one that suppresses the growth of bacteria.
broad-spectrum antibiotic
one that is effective against a wide range of bacteria.
antibiotic detection
on-farm and prepackaged laboratory tests available for testing farm products and animal tissues and fluids for antibiotic residues.
antibiotic drugs
the range includes the following groups: penicillin, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, macrolide, nitrofuran, cephalosporins, and a miscellaneous group including bacitracin, tyrothricin, polymyxin, colistin.
antibiotic feed additives
see feed additives.
first generation antibiotic
one produced as a natural product, e.g. penicillin G. See second generation antibiotic (below).
antibiotic food preservation
is a satisfactory technique but very strictly controlled because of the problem of residues in the food. Used mostly for the preservation of fish.
antibiotic-induced diarrhea
see pseudomembranous colitis, acute undifferentiated diarrhea of the horse.
antibiotic residue in food
in human food of animal origin is a seriously regarded pollution in public health surveillance. The residues may arise from systemic administration, or even after absorption from a local site such as the uterus, but the most serious contamination arises from milk from quarters that have been treated for mastitis. It is essential for the safety of the human population, the financial well-being of the farmer and the professional reputation of the veterinarian that antibacterial withdrawal times are observed.
antibiotic resistance
see antimicrobial resistance.
second generation antibiotic
produced by manipulation of the molecular structure of a first generation antibiotic (see above) so that the metabolism and pharmacodynamics of the original compound are significantly altered.
antibiotic sensitivity test
see antimicrobial sensitivity test.
antibiotic therapy
antibiotics vary in their absorption from the alimentary tract, requiring some, e.g. streptomycin, to be given parenterally for systemic effect, freedom from toxicity, the range of bacteria against which they are effective, their capacity to stimulate resistance and whether they are bacteriostatic or bactericidal in their effects. Selection of the most suitable antibiotic to suit a particular circumstance may be guided by an antimicrobial sensitivity test, knowledge of the infection present and the price of the drug. In many instances, because of lack of knowledge of the infection present it is necessary to choose an agent with a broad antibacterial spectrum.
antibiotic withdrawal, antibiotic withholding
see antibacterial withdrawal time.

Patient discussion about antibiotic resistance

Q. Are superbugs contagious through the air? Last week we visited my dad in the hospital, and we noticed that on the next room’s door there was a warning sign. After asking, we were told it was a denoting that the patient inside had a superbug (called klebsiella). On our way out we passed against this patient in the hallway – is it possible that I also carry this superbag? Is it dangerous?

A. Usually these bacteria are transmitted from person to person through direct contact, and less through the air. Moreover, these germs are dangerous in ill and debilitated patients, and not in normal healthy individuals.

Q. Why Is it Important to Not Use Antibiotics Often? Why is my doctor always so reluctant to prescribe me antibiotics?

A. Antibiotic resistance has become a serious problem in both developed and underdeveloped nations. By 1984 half of those with active tuberculosis in the United States had a strain that resisted at least one antibiotic. In certain settings, such as hospitals and some childcare locations, the rate of antibiotic resistance is so high that the usual, low-cost antibiotics are virtually useless for treatment of frequently seen infections. This leads to more frequent use of newer and more expensive compounds, which in turn leads to the rise of resistance to those drugs. A struggle to develop new antibiotics ensues to prevent losing future battles against infection. Therefore the doctors try to avoid using antibiotics when it is not necessary, and try to keep a certain limited use of these medications.

More discussions about antibiotic resistance
References in periodicals archive ?
Antibiotic Awareness Week, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), on behalf of the Interagency Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria (CARB) Task Force, has released a Progress Report to detail the significant progress during the first two years of implementation of the National Action Plan for Combatting Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria.
The research suggested that increasing number of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a rapidly growing global problem.
With the first global priority pathogens list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, WHO aims to promote the research and development of new antibiotics among both the public and private sectors.
Study suggests a new treatment for antibiotic-resistant bacteria and infectious disease.
In this study, the researchers investigated the possibility of recruiting phages in the fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, reviving the original idea of Felix d'Herelle, proposed in 1926.
The partnership aims to fight antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Lisa Durso, a microbiologist at the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Agroecosystem Management Research Unit in Lincoln, Nebraska, recently found antibiotic-resistant bacteria in prairie soils that had little or no exposure to human or animal activity.
WASHINGTON, May 26 (KUNA) -- Health authorities in the US have found a person infected with a dangerous strain of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria, CRE, for the first time, according to US reports.
Advancing new therapeutic options to combat drug-resistant bacteria is a key goal of the President's National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria.
ISLAMABAD -- Common naturally occurring food preservative may be used to beat cancer and deadly, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, said a new study.
Surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles is theoretically investigated in order to develop physical antibiotics coping with antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
In a study slated for publication next month, he and Texas Tech University colleague Greg Mayer may have made their biggest discovery yet: DNA from antibiotic-resistant bacteria in cattle feedlots is airborne.

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