antipsychotic

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Related to Anti-psychotics: Atypical antipsychotics

antipsychotic

 [an″te-, an″ti-si-kot´ik]
modifying psychotic behavior.
antipsychotic agent any drug that favorably modifies psychotic symptoms; categories include the phenothiazines, butyrophenones, thioxanthenes, dibenzodiazepines, diphenylbutylpiperidines, dihydroindolones, and dibenzoxazepines. They are chemically diverse but pharmacologically similar. Formerly called major tranquilizer.

Antipsychotics stabilize mood and reduce anxiety, tension, and hyperactivity. They are also effective in helping to control agitation and aggressiveness. Delusions and hallucinations are often modified and may be eliminated by such an agent, but once the drug is discontinued, the delusions and hallucinations often return within a short while. Different antipsychotic agents bind to dopamine, histamine, muscarinic, cholinergic, α-adrenergic, and serotonin receptors. Blockade of dopaminergic transmission in various areas is thought to be responsible for the major antipsychotic, antiemetic effects of these agents as well as neurologic side effects. The drugs are contraindicated in patients suffering from central nervous system depression, severe allergy, Parkinson's disease, or a blood dyscrasia. There also is the possibility of drug-drug interaction when neuroleptic drugs are given concurrently with barbiturates, alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, antihypertensives, meperidine, anticonvulsants, or levodopa.

Many antipsychotics have alarming side effects (see extrapyramidal effects); thus there must be thorough patient education and individualized adjustments in dosage. The side effects can usually be minimized by gradually increasing the dosage until the optimum for the individual is reached. Side effects such as a discomforting restlessness and agitation (akathisia), involuntary rhythmic movements of the trunk and limbs, parkinsonism, and tardive dyskinesia are often misinterpreted as symptoms of some unrelated disorder; these are often the reason for noncompliance or stopping of medication by patients. Approximately 20 per cent of the patients treated with neuroleptics for long periods develop tardive dyskinesia, a syndrome of choreoathetoid movements of the tongue, mouth, face, neck, limbs, and trunk, which may continue after the drug is stopped.

Antipsychotic agents are sometimes prescribed for conditions other than mental disorders. They can be beneficial in the control of nausea, in the treatment of intractable hiccups, in controlling the movement disorders associated with Huntington's chorea and Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome, and, in combination with other drugs, for the control of pain.

an·ti·psy·chot·ic

(an'tē-sī-kot'ik),
1. Synonym(s): antipsychotic agent
2. Denoting the actions of such an agent (for example, chlorpromazine).

antipsychotic

/an·ti·psy·chot·ic/ (-si-kot´ik) effective in the treatment of psychotic disorders; also, an agent that so acts. Antipsychotics are a chemically diverse but pharmacologically similar class of drugs; besides psychotic disorders, some are also used to treat movement disorders, intractable hiccups, or severe nausea and vomiting.

antipsychotic

(ăn′tē-sī-kŏt′ĭk, ăn′tī-)
adj.
Counteracting or diminishing the symptoms of psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia.
n.
An antipsychotic drug.

antipsychotic

[-sīkot′ik]
Etymology: Gk, anti + psyche, mind, osis, condition
1 pertaining to a substance or procedure that counteracts or diminishes symptoms of a psychosis.
2 an antipsychotic drug. Categories include the phenothiazine derivatives, butyrophenones, thioxanthene derivatives, dibenzodiazepines, diphenylbutylpiperidines, dihydroindolones, and dibenzoxazepines. They are chemically diverse but pharmacologically similar. Formerly called major tranquilizer.

antipsychotic

adjective Referring to an antipsychotic drug.

noun Any drug that attenuates psychotic episodes.
 
Agents
Phenothiazines, thioxanthenes, butyrophenones, dibenzoxazepines, dibenzodiazepines, diphenylbutylpiperidines.
 
Main types of antipsychotics
Typical and atypical, which differ in their side/adverse effects.
 
Indications
Management of schizophrenic, paranoid, schizo-affective and other psychotic disorders; acute delirium, dementia, manic episodes (during induction of lithium therapy), control of movement disorders (in Huntington’s disease), Tourette syndrome, ballismus, intractable hiccups, severe nausea and vomiting (by blocking the medulla’s chemoreceptor trigger zone).
 
Adverse effects
Extrapyramidal effects (dystonia, akathisia, parkinsonism), tardive dyskinesia due to blocking of basal ganglia; sedation and autonomic side effects (orthostatic hypotension, blurred vision, dry mouth, nasal congestion and constipation) are due to blocking of histaminic, cholinergic and adrenergic receptors.

an·ti·psy·chot·ic

(an'tē-sī-kot'ik)
1. Synonym(s): antipsychotic agent.
2. Denoting the actions of such an agent.

antipsychotic

A drug used in the treatment or control of severe mental illness such as SCHIZOPHRENIA. The antipsychotic drugs include such groups as the benzamides (Amisulpride, Dolmatil, Solian); benzisoxzoles (Risperidal); butyrophenones (Anquil, Dozic, Droleptan, Haldol, Serenace); phenothiazines (Fentazin, Largactil, Melleril, Modecate, Moditen, Neulactil, Nozinan, Stelazine); and thioxanthines (Clopixol, Depixol).

an·ti·psy·chot·ic

(an'tē-sī-kot'ik)
1. Synonym(s): antipsychotic agent.
2. Denoting the actions of such an agent (e.g., chlorpromazine).

antipsychotic

effective in the management of manifestations of psychotic disorders; also, an agent that so acts. There are several classes of antipsychotic drugs (phenothiazines, thioxanthenes, dibenzazepines and butyrophenones), all of which may act by the same mechanism, i.e. blockade of dopaminergic receptors in the central nervous system. Called also neuroleptic and major tranquilizer.
References in periodicals archive ?
It comes at a great cost for many sufferers because drugs' side-effects can prove far nastier than their benefits - as the professor found last month when he tested an anti-psychotic himself.
Alzheimer's Society research manager Dr Anne Corbett said: "This research supports existing studies that have shown anti-psychotics can raise the risk of death, particularly when used over the longer term.
However, we can confirm that as far as possible we adhere to National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) guidance on the use of anti-psychotic medication in the elderly while weighing up the risks and benefits in individual cases.
The results showed people who had taken anti-psychotic drugs in the previous two years had a 32% greater risk of any type of blood clot.
Professor Clive Ballard, from King's College London, who led the research, said: "The study clearly highlights the serious risks associated with the long term use of anti-psychotics in people with Alzheimer's.
Two World Health Organization studies comparing "schizophrenia" outcomes between developed and developing countries found much better outcomes in the developing countries where anti-psychotics were used much less.
Among the four CNS drug groups, high numbers of prescriptions per recipient, and high payment per prescription led to the highest payments per recipient for anti-psychotics, regardless of eligibility group.
More than half of people with dementia will experience agitation or aggression at some point, but NICE guidance is clear - anti-psychotics should only be given when this is really necessary.
Scandalous over prescription of anti-psychotics must end.
Research by academics at the University of London's Pharmacy School found that in 1992 595 children in Britain were prescribed anti-psychotics at a rate of less than four per 10,000 children.
It was significantly increased among users of gastro-intestinal (GI) medication and anti-psychotics.

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