anticholinergic

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Related to Anti-cholinergic: acetylcholine, anticholinergic toxidrome

anticholinergic

 [an″te-, an″ti-ko″lin-er´jik]
1. blocking the passage of impulses through the parasympathetic nerves.
2. an agent that has this effect; called also parasympatholytic.

an·ti·cho·lin·er·gic

(an'tē-kol-i-ner'jik),
Antagonistic to the action of parasympathetic or other cholinergic nerve fibers (for example, atropine).

anticholinergic

/an·ti·cho·lin·er·gic/ (-ko″lin-er´jik) parasympatholytic; blocking the passage of impulses through the parasympathetic nerves; also, an agent that so acts.

anticholinergic

(ăn′tē-kō′lə-nûr′jĭk, ăn′tī-)
adj.
Inhibiting or blocking the physiological action of acetylcholine at a receptor site: anticholinergic drugs.

an′ti·cho′li·ner′gic n.

anticholinergic

[-kō′lənur′jik]
Etymology: Gk, anti + chole, bile, ergein, to work
1 pertaining to a blockade of acetylcholine receptors that results in the inhibition of the transmission of parasympathetic nerve impulses.
2 an anti-cholinergic agent that functions by competing with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine for its receptor sites at synaptic junctions. Anticholinergics are used to treat spastic disorders of the GI tract, to reduce salivary and bronchial secretions before surgery, or to dilate the pupil. Some anticholinergics reduce parkinsonian symptoms but are never considered primary agents for therapy. Atropine in large doses stimulates the central nervous system and in small doses acts as a depressant. Among numerous cholinergic blocking agents are atropine, belladonna, glycopyrrolate, hyoscyamine, methixene hydrochloride, trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride, and scopolamine. Also called cholinergic-blocking agent, parasympatholytic. See also antiadrenergic.

anticholinergic

adjective Referring to an agent or effect that suppresses or inhibits acetylcholine activity.
 
noun Any agent that inhibits parasympathetic activity by blocking the neurotransmitter acetylcholine; anticholinergics are used for asthma, COPD, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, Parkinson’s disease and to decrease smooth muscle spasms (e.g., in the urinary bladder); anticholinergics may be antimuscarinic, ganglionic blockers and neuromuscular blockers.

anticholinergic

Parasympatholytic adjective Referring to an agent or effect that suppresses or inhibits acetylcholine activity noun Any agent that inhibits parasympathetic activity by blocking the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine; anticholinergics are used for asthma, COPD, diarrhea, N&V, Parkinson's disease, and to ↓ smooth muscle spasms–eg, in the urinary bladder; anticholinergics may be antimuscarinic, ganglionic blockers, and neuromuscular blockers

an·ti·cho·lin·er·gic

(an'tē-kō'li-nĕr'jik)
1. Antagonistic to the action of parasympathetic or other cholinergic nerve fibers (e.g., atropine).
2. Any of a class of compounds exerting anticholinergic effects. Some of these compounds (e.g., atropine) are used medicinally.

anticholinergic

Antagonistic to the action of acetyl choline or to the parasympathetic or other CHOLINERGIC nerve supply. Acetyl choline stimulates muscle contraction in the intestines and elsewhere and slows the heart. Anticholinergic substances, such as ATROPINE, relieve muscle spasm, dilate the pupils and speed up the heart.

Anticholinergic

Blocking the action of the neurohormone acetylcholine. The most obvious effects include dry mouth and dry eyes.

acetylcholine (ACh) 

A neurotransmitter substance with special excitatory properties of all preganglionic autonomic neurons, all parasympathetic postganglionic neurons and a few postganglionic sympathetic neurons. Acetylcholine is synthesized and liberated by the action of the enzyme choline acetyltranferase from the compounds choline and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) which occurs in all cholinergic neurons. ACh exists only momentarily after its formation, being hydrolysed by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase which is present in the neurons of cholinergic nerves throughout their entire lengths and at neuromuscular junctions: this process is essential for proper muscle function as otherwise the accumulation of ACh would result in continuous stimulation of the muscles, glands and central nervous system. Alternatively a shortage of ACh has devastating effect (e.g. myasthenia gravis). ACh binds to acetylcholine receptors on skeletal muscle fibres. Sodium enters the muscle fibre membrane, which leads to a depolarization of the membrane and muscle contraction. There are two main types of acetylcholine receptors (cholinergic receptors): muscarinic receptors, which are stimulated by muscarine and ACh, belong to a family of G proteins coupled receptors and are situated in parasympathetically innervated structures (e.g. the iris and ciliary body); and nicotine receptors, which are stimulated by nicotine and ACh, are ligand-gated receptors and are situated in striated muscles (e.g. the extraocular muscles). Cholinergic receptors are found in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, in the brain and spinal cord. The action of ACh can be either blocked or stimulated by drugs: Anticholinesterase drugs (e.g. neostigmine) inhibit acetylcholinesterase and prolong the action of acetylcholine whereas antimuscarinic drugs (also referred to as anticholinergics or parasympatholytics) such as atropine, cyclopentolate, homatropine, hyoscine and tropicamide inhibit the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. Other drugs mimic the action of ACh, they are known as parasympathomimetics (e.g. pilocarpine). See cholinergic; cycloplegia; miotics; mydriatic; neurotransmitter; nicotine; synapse; autonomic nervous system.

an·ti·cho·lin·er·gic

(an'tē-kō'li-nĕr'jik)
Antagonistic to the action of parasympathetic or other cholinergic nerve fibers (e.g., atropine).

anticholinergic (an´tīkō´linur´jik),

n (parasympatholytic, cholinolytic), a drug that acts to inhibit the effects of the neurohormone acetylcholine or to inhibit its cholinergic neuroeffects. A cholinergic blocking agent.

anticholinergic

blockade of acetylcholine receptors, resulting in the inhibition of the transmission of parasympathetic nerve impulses; parasympatholytic. Used most commonly in the nonspecific treatment of vomiting or diarrhea; includes atropine, propantheline, scopolamine, isopropamide.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, the alkaloid, isovoacristine, acts as an anti-cholinergic agent.
A randomized trial between BTX A and an anti-cholinergic medication in patients with moderate to severe OAB with detrusor overactivity who are naive to treatment may be reasonable to address this issue, especially in the subset of neurogenic OAB who are already intermittently catheterizing.
Indeed, the alpha-sympathomimetic activity of phenylephrin induces an increase in pupil diameter, while the anti-cholinergic activity of tropicamide prevents the iris from contracting.
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Medical intervention with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, phenazopyridine and anti-cholinergic agents may be used.
Eisai Limited, the licence holder of Aricept(R) (donepezil hydrochloride) and Pfizer Limited, its co-promotion partner, have been notified by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) of their decision to continue to deny vulnerable patients the use of anti-cholinergic medicines in the treatment of mild Alzheimer's disease.
Additionally, patients may have received concomitant treatment with stable doses of a dopamine agonist and/or an anti-cholinergic drug.
CHICAGO, April 30 /PRNewswire/ -- Patients with overactive bladder (OAB) treated with solifenacin reported significantly lower incidence and severity of dry mouth, an often intolerable anti-cholinergic side effect, than those treated with oxybutynin immediate-release (IR).
They include the current Parkinson's disease treatments such as anti-cholinergic agents, NMDA inhibitors, etc.
It represents a potential new approach to treating urinary incontinence and may have advantages over existing therapies, including improvements in efficacy through increases in bladder volume with decreases in involuntary bladder contractions and the absence of anti-cholinergic side effects such as dry mouth.
Both transdermal oxybutynin and Detrol(R) LA were well tolerated in the study and the incidence of anti-cholinergic side effects, such as dry mouth, was low for all groups.
He has participated in the clinical development of several novel treatments for COPD, including anti-cholinergic and B-agonist bronchodilators, and anti-inflammatory and muco-active agents as an investigator and as an advisor.