perineum

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perineum

 [per″ĭ-ne´um]
the pelvic floor and associated structures occupying the pelvic outlet, bounded anteriorly by the pubic symphysis, laterally by the ischial tuberosities, and posteriorly by the coccyx. During childbirth the perineum may be torn, resulting in possible damage to the urinary meatus and anal sphincter. To avoid a perineal tear, the obstetrician often cuts the perineum just before delivery and sutures the incision after delivery of the infant and the placenta. This procedure is called an episiotomy. Surgical repair of an episiotomy or of a torn or lacerated perineum is called perineorrhaphy.

per·i·ne·um

, pl.

per·i·ne·a

(per'i-nē'ŭm, -nē'ă), [TA]
1. Surface area between the thighs extending from the coccyx to the pubis that includes the anus posteriorly and the external genitalia anteriorly.
2. The compartment inferior to the pelvic diaphragm bounded peripherally by the osseofibrous structures comprising the pelvic outlet the surface of which is sense 1.
3. External surface of the central tendon of the perineum, lying between the vulva and the anus in the female and the scrotum and the anus in the male.
[L. fr. G. perineon, perinaion]

perineum

/peri·ne·um/ (-ne´um)
1. the pelvic floor and associated structures occupying the pelvic outlet, bounded anteriorly by the pubic symphysis, laterally by the ischial tuberosities, and posteriorly by the coccyx.
2. the region between the thighs, bounded in the male by the scrotum and anus and in the female by the vulva and anus.

perineum

(pĕr′ə-nē′əm)
n. pl. peri·nea (-nē′ə)
1. The portion of the body in the pelvis occupied by urogenital passages and the rectum, bounded in front by the pubic arch, in the back by the coccyx, and laterally by part of the hipbone.
2. The region between the scrotum and the anus in males, and between the posterior vulva junction and the anus in females.

per′i·ne′al (-nē′əl) adj.

perineum

[per′inē′əm]
Etymology: Gk, perineos
the part of the body situated dorsal to the pubic arch and the arcuate ligaments, ventral to the tip of the coccyx, and lateral to the inferior rami of the pubis and the ischium and the sacrotuberous ligaments. The perineum supports and surrounds the distal parts of the urogenital and GI tracts of the body. In the female the central fibrous perineal body is larger than in the male; the bulbospongiosus, which is a sphincter around the orifice of the vagina and a cover over the clitoris, does not exist in the male perineum. In men and women the muscles are innervated by the perineal branch of the pudendal nerve. perineal, adj.

perineum

The mucocutaneous tissue between the posterior scrotum or vagina and the anal sphincter.

per·i·ne·um

(per'i-nē'ŭm, -ă) [TA]
1. The area between the thighs extending from the coccyx to the pubis and lying below the pelvic diaphragm.
2. The external surface of the central tendon of the perineum, lying between the vulva and the anus in the female and the scrotum and the anus in the male.
[L. fr. G. perineon, perinaion]

perineum

(per?i-ne'um) [Gr. perinaion]
1. The structures occupying the pelvic outlet and constituting the pelvic floor.
Enlarge picture
PERINEUM
2. The external region between the vulva and anus in a female or between the scrotum and anus in a male. It is made up of skin, muscle, and fasciae. The muscles of the perineum are the anterior portion of the intact levator ani muscle and the transverse perineal muscle. See: illustration; perineal body

perineum

That part of the floor of the PELVIS that lies between the tops of the thighs. In the male, the perineum lies between the anus and the scrotum. In the female, it includes the external genitalia.

Perineum

The area between the opening of the vagina and the anus in a woman, or the area between the scrotum and the anus in a man.

perineum

the region between the tail and the ischiatic arch, especially the region between the anus and genital organs made up of the pelvic diaphragm and associated structures occupying the pelvic outlet, bounded ventrally by the pelvic symphysis, laterally by the ischial tuberosities, and dorsally by the coccygeal vertebrae. During parturition the perineum may be torn, resulting in possible damage to the urinary meatus and anal sphincter. To avoid a perineal laceration the veterinarian may cut the perineum just before delivery and suture the incision after delivery. See also episiotomy, perineorrhaphy.
References in periodicals archive ?
First, anogenital distance has been shown to be associated with adverse health effects in humans.
They found that the infertile men possessed a significantly shorter anogenital distance and penile length when compared with the fertile men.
Preliminary results from a multicenter study found a 10-fold higher likelihood of a reduced anogenital distance in boys born to women exposed to high levels versus low levels of a certain phthalate, a compound used in making plastics and other products in everyday use.
In people, the anogenital distance "is not a measurement that is typically made," notes J.
In girls, subtle changes in anogenital distance appeared to be associated with phthalate residues in the mothers' urine.
Anogenital distance or digit length ratio as measures of fetal androgen exposure: relationship to male reproductive development and its disorders.
OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether in utero exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds adversely influences anogenital distance in newborns and young children (median age, 16 months; range, 1-31 months).
Anogenital distance is the length from the anus to the base of either the penis or vagina.
KEY WORDS: anogenital distance, antiandrogens, endocrine disruption, semen quality, testicular dysgenesis.
OBJECTIVES: To fill this gap, we investigated the effects of mixtures of a widely used plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); two fungicides present in food, vinclozolin and prochloraz; and a pharmaceutical, finasteride, on landmarks of male sexual development in the rat, including changes in anogenital distance (AGD), retained nipples, sex organ weights, and malformations of genitalia.
Anogenital distance (AGD), a sexually dimorphic trait in rodents and humans, is considered a reliable marker of androgen and antiandrogen effects in rodents, but data on AGD in humans are sparse and longitudinal changes during infancy have not been assessed.
BACKGROUND: Anogenital distance (AGD) is sexually dimorphic in rodents and humans, being 2- to 2.