animal model

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an·i·mal mod·el

study in a population of laboratory animals that uses conditions in animals analogous to conditions of humans to simulate processes comparable with those that occur in human populations.

animal model

An animal that is an accidental or deliberate (though selective inbreeding) model of a human disease. Such models are experimental living systems that are used to study disease mechanisms and provide insight into possible therapies.

Animal models
• AIDS—SAIDS in macaque monkeys. 
• ALL—Immune deficient SCID mice. 
• Atherosclerosis—Watanabe rabbits. 
• Ceroid lipofuscinosis—Border collies.
• Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A—Pmp-22 mutant trembler-J mice.
• Congenital hyperbilirubinemia—Gunn rat enzymopathy.
• Congenital malignancy—Embryonal nephroma—pigs; hepatoblastoma—sheep; melanoma—darkly pigmented animals. 
• Crohn’s disease—Paratuberculosis/Johne’s disease, which affects dairy ruminants by Mycobacterium johnei.
• Cryptorchidism—dogs (castration).
• Cystinuria type I—Newfoundland dogs; Pebbles, a transgenic mouse model.
• Demyelination—Shiverer mouse.
• Diabetes insipidus—Brattleboro rats.
• Distichia—Cocker spaniels, dachshunds, bulldogs, Yorkshire terriers, poodles.
• End-organ resistance to normal hormones—Sebright bantam rooster.
• Endocardial fibrosis—Turkeys.
• Familial hypercholesterolaemia—Watanabe rabbits.
• Fibrosing alveolitis/Hamman-Rich disease—Bovine pulmonary disease. 
• GH-resistant dwarfism—Mini-mouse.
• Inherited giant platelet disorders—King Charles Spaniel dogs (Cavaliers).
• Kinky hair disease—Copper deficiency in sheep.
• Klinefelter syndrome—X-linked testicular feminisation in mice.
• Lymphocytic thyroiditis—Beagles, obese chickens, buffalo rats, primates.
• Lymphoma—Lymphosarcoma in dogs. 
• Malignant histiocytosis—Bernese Mountain dogs.
• Melanoma, spontaneously regressing—Sinclair swine.
• Mixed tumour (benign breast tumour)—Dogs.
• Muscular hypertrophy—Belgian blue cows.
• Myotonia congenita—Fainting goats.
• Neurolymphomatosis—Marek’s disease, induced by an oncogenic herpesvirus.
• Neuroplasticity—Aplysia, a marine mollusc.
• Osteopetrosis—Gray lethal mouse.
• Pacinian neurofibroma—Peking duck.
• Protothecosis—Collie dogs.
• Rheumatoid arthritis—Erysipelothrix-induced arthritis.
• Sleep apnea (obstructive)—English bulldog.
• Spermatocytic seminoma—old men and old dogs.
• Systemic lupus—NZB/NZW mice.
• Waardenburg syndrome—ferrets.

an·i·mal model

(an'i-măl mod'ĕl)
Study in a population of laboratory animals that uses conditions of animals analogous to conditions of humans to simulate processes comparable with those that occur in human populations.

model

a simulation, a copy, occurring naturally or manufactured. Models used in statistical and epidemiological studies may be deterministic, stochastic or random.

model 1
the fixed version of the linear additive model used in linear regression analysis.
model 2
the random version of the linear additive model used in linear regression analysis.
animal model
any condition in an animal that has enough similarities to a condition in humans that studies of the animal disease are will assist in understanding the human disorder.
causal model
a model used to determine the part played by multiple factors in the cause or causes of disease; a path model in which the variables are arranged temporally.
descriptive model
consist largely of diagrams and maps or charts designed to describe a real-world system.
deterministic model
see epidemiological model (below).
epidemiological model
a mathematical model, which may be a computer simulation model, of a disease for the purpose of studying the behavior of the disease in a variable animal population under variable conditions of climate, density of population, mix of population, and so on. It may be an analytical model, an economic decision making model, an explanatory model or a predictive model. It may also be a causal model, which allows the operator to vary the determinants of prevalence and observe the respective outcomes. It may permit only the use of fixed numbers so that it will always return the same answer to the same question, in which case it is a deterministic model, or it may introduce the element of chance into the selection of outcomes, in which case it is a stochastic model.
Specific computer simulation models have been prepared for the study of rinderpest, the costs of mastitis control, the cost-benefits of foot-and-mouth disease control, and the costs of mortality in dairy calves. For example see reed-frost model.
linear programming model
a statistical model of a dependent variable, e.g. Y, as a linear combination of other variables, e.g. X. The model is based on a series of linear equations with a linear equation, called the objective function, as the desired end. Such an end could, in the determination of lowest cost rations, be the total cost of each ration.
mathematical model
a representation of a system, process or relationship in a mathematical form; see also mathematical modeling.
physical model
e.g. a model of a molecule utilizing colored balls connected by rigid wires.
probabilistic model
includes basic concepts of probability theory and may be deterministic or stochastic.
Reed-Frost model
a deterministic probability model of a theoretical epidemic.
stochastic model
see epidemiological model.
symbolic model
mathematical symbols used to describe the status of variables at a given time and to define the manner in which they change and interact.
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