local anesthetic

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local anesthetic

n.
An anesthetic drug that induces local anesthesia by inhibiting nerve excitation or conduction.

local anesthetic

a medication used to prevent the transmission of impulses through nerves to eliminate sensation in a defined area of the body. It can also prevent motor and autonomic function in this area. The effect is transient (time limited). Drugs available for local anesthesia are classified as members of the ester or the amide family. Specific preparations are available for topical administration, infiltration, and various kinds of regional administration, including field block, regional block, epidural block, and spinal block. People who are sensitive to local anesthetics of one group often can tolerate those of the other group. The vascularity of the injection site, the speed with which the drug is given, the rapidity of action of the drug, and the presence of epinephrine or Neo-Cobefrin in the solution may affect any adverse response.

local anesthetic

Pain control An agent administered at the site of pain or anticipated pain–eg, before dental work or surgical incision Types Esters–hydrolyzed by pseudocholinesterase and amides–metabolized in the liver and excreted in urine; a vasoconstrictor, usually epinephrine, diluted to 1:200,000 may added to limit absorption, and enable use of more anesthetic. Cf General anesthesia.

Local anesthetic

Medication applied topically to the skin or administered through an injection that deadens a specific part of the body and inhibits the sensation of pain.

anesthetic

1. pertaining to, characterized by, or producing anesthesia.
2. a drug or agent used to abolish the sensation of pain, to achieve adequate muscle relaxation during surgery, to calm fear and allay anxiety. See also anesthesia.

dissociative anesthetic
an anesthetic causing interruption of cerebral association pathways between the limbic system and cortical system. It produces a catalepsy-like state, in which the patient feels dissociated from its environment, and marked analgesia. Ketamine, phencyclidine and tiletamine hydrochloride are examples.
gaseous anesthetic
inhalation anesthesia. Halothane and isoflurane are commonly used agents.
general anesthetic
see general anesthesia.
anesthetic-induced rhabdomyolysis
see porcine stress syndrome.
inhalation anesthetic
gas or volatile liquid that produces general anesthesia when inhaled. The older agents, ether and cyclopropane, have been replaced by halothane, enflurane and isoflurane.
injectable anesthetic
sedative-hypnotic drugs produce anesthesia when administered in large doses. It can be administered intraperitoneally, but intravenous injection is much the most common route. Short-acting drugs, such as thiopentone, are used alone for very rapid procedures or for instrument examinations, or as induction for a longer term inhalation anesthetic. See also barbiturate. One anesthetic agent that is administered intramuscularly is ketamine.
irreversible anesthetic
the injection of a substance that destroys the peripheral nerve, e.g. ethyl or propyl alcohol.
local anesthetic
a drug that blocks nerve transmission in the nerves affected by the local presence of the drug. It may be applied topically, e.g. into the conjunctival sac, or by injection into tissues near the target nerve. Most local anesthetics are in the -caine series.
anesthetic machine
apparatus or equipment used to administer gaseous anesthetic agents; functions of the apparatus should include,
1. delivery of oxygen,
2. removal of carbon dioxide,
3. quantifiable delivery of anesthetic vapor or gas, and
4. capability of providing artificial respiration to the patient.
anesthetic scavenging
the use of any device to reduce the pollution of the air in surgeries caused by exhaled anesthetic gases. May be canisters of filtering material attached to the machine or suction lines at stragetic positions in the theater.
volatile anesthetic
see inhalation anesthetic (above).