Calvin cycle

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Fig. 86 Calvin cycle . The ‘dark’ reactions of the Calvin cycle.

Calvin cycle

a series of chemical reactions, first described by Melvin CALVIN, which take place in the watery matrix of CHLOROPLASTS, where carbon dioxide is incorporated into more complex molecules and eventually carbohydrate. Energy for the reactions is supplied by ATP with NADPH (see NADP acting as a reducing agent, both having been produced in the light reactions of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Since light is not required for the Calvin cycle to continue (provided CO2 ,ATP and NADPH are present) the steps are called the ‘dark’ reactions.

Every turn of the cycle fixes one molecule of carbon dioxide by producing two molecules of PGA and then two molecules of PGAL; three turns are necessary to release one molecule of PGAL (C3) for the glucose pathway with the remaining five PGAL molecules remaining within the cycle. Thus six turns produce sufficient quantities of PGAL for the production of one molecule of glucose (C3 + C3 = C6).

Calvin cycle

see dark reaction.
References in periodicals archive ?
Andy Benson, from Huyton, who is swapping being one of the Red Arrows photographers for a tour of duty in Iraq; In the air with the Red Arrows team; Watching from the ground in Iraq; Andy Benson enjoys air to air photography; He regularly goes on patrol with British troops
NEW LIFE: Royal Air Force photographer Corporal Andy Benson, from Huyton (left) who has spent the last three years as the Red Arrows official photographer; FRONTLINE: With the British troops in Basra
An impression of the new Travelodge planned for Birmingham Airport Wright Silverwood directors Simon Smith, Andy Benson, Andy Silverwood and Jim Wright
The GB men - with Scots Mark McGivern, Andy Benson and Chris Lamont in their ranks - face Belarus and Israel in their firstround group as the long road begins to the finals, which will be held in Italy in 2010.
The Commanding Officer of FISC Yokosuka, CAPT Andy Benson conceived the concept of "operationalization" and subsequently directed the establishment of a more "hands-on, in-touch" Operations Department closely aligned with the fleet and joint forces operating in the Western Pacific who depend on FISC Yokosuka for their logistics needs.
Andy Benson, a forecaster for the Met Office, said it looked like the fog would not clear until tomorrow.
Chris Lamont (Stap Orion) and Mark McGivern (Omniworld) - both based in Holland - are joined by Andy Benson, part of the GB Sheffield-based squad.
Captain Andy Benson provides a perspective on the development and content of these three key statements on Page 2 of this issue of the Newsletter.
Database won 3-2 at home to Mersey Lions with goals from Andy Dickinson, Andy Benson and Richie Peters, and efforts from Ian Wilson, Frank Fawcett and Mark Bibby helped Endbutt Hotel to move up the table after beating Wynstay 3-1.
Martin Guest analyses the 4 Chancellor's good news for the city Robert Biddlecombe 7 looks at a golden opportunity Andy Benson sees how the retail 9 sector is standing up to the pressure Report from the latest Business 12 and Property Review forum Pubs are showing 16 tentative signs of recovery after the spate of closures Matt Bromley on the real 19 importance of health and safety Where now for business parks ask Charlie Toogood Much to look forward to, say partners at Johnson Fellows Gary Turley and the challenges after the public sector cuts Worcester's new pounds 60m library is a European first Adrian Aston on the need for encouraging development Louise Brooke-Smith on the housing supply imperative
VOLLEYBALL: Belgian champions Noliko Maaseik have offered Scotland and GB cap Andy Benson a short-term deal.
Chaired by its senior member, CAPT Carl Bright, the initial group consists of Captains Chris Barber, Andy Benson, Rob Bianchi, Marty Brown, Kathleen Dussault, Mark Heinrich, Fred Kuhm, Bob (Knob) Moses, Eric Myhre, Sharon Redpath and Walt Wright.