Androgens


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androgens

Male sex hormones. Androgens are STEROIDS and include testosterone and androsterone. As drugs, they are used to stimulate the development of sexual characteristics in boys when there is inadequate output from the testicles and to stimulate red cell formation in APLASTIC ANAEMIA. See also ANABOLIC STEROIDS. The term androgen derives from the Greek andros , a man and gennao , to make.

Androgens

Male sex hormones produced by the adrenal glands and testes, the male sex glands.

androgens

steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex in both sexes and by the testis, responsible for male characteristics and male reproductive function; involved also in the synthesis of oestrogens in the ovary. (Applies also to synthetic hormones with similar action). See also anabolic steroids, hormones; Table 1.
Table 1: Hormones
Site of productionName of hormoneMain targetsInvolved in regulating:Secretion controlled by:
HypothalamusReleasing and inhibiting hormonesAnterior pituitary (via local blood vessels)Secretion of anterior pituitary hormonesOther brain regions; feedback re regulated hormones and their actions
Neurohormones released from posterior pituitary:
OxytocinUterus, breastsLabour and lactationAfferent information from target organs
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)KidneysWater loss: ECF volume and osmolalityHypothalamic osmoreceptors
Anterior pituitary(Human) growth hormone (H)GHMost cellsGrowth and metabolismHypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones via local blood vessels
ProlactinBreastsMilk production
Trophic hormones:
Thyroid-stimulating (TSH)Thyroid glandThyroid secretions
GonadotrophinsOvary or testisGerm cell maturation and hormone secretions
Adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH)Adrenal cortexCortisol secretion
Pineal bodyMelatoninWidespread, including brain, thymus, etc.
  • Sleep/wake cycle
  • Antioxidant
  • Immune system
Hypothalamus; varying light input from retina
Thyroid
  • Thyroxine
  • Triiodothyronine
  • Calcitonin
  • Most cells
  • Bone, kidneys, gut
  • Cellular oxidative metabolism
  • Decreases ECF [Ca2+]
  • TSH from anterior pituitary. Negative feedback from blood hormone concentration
  • ECF [Ca2+]
ParathyroidsParathormoneBone, kidneys, gut
  • Calcium and phosphorus absorption, secretion and turnover in bone.
  • Increases ECF [Ca2+]
ECF [Ca2+]
Adrenal: Cortex
  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Androgens
  • Most cells
  • Kidneys
  • Gonads & other tissues
  • Metabolism
  • Response to stress
  • Na and K balance
  • Sex characteristics and reproductive function
  • ACTH from anterior pituitary
  • ECF [Na+] [K+]
  • Renin-angiotensin
  • ACTH
Medulla
  • Adrenaline
  • Noradrenaline
Heart, smooth muscle, glandsCardiovascular and metabolic adjustments to activity and stressSympathetic nervous system
Atrial wallAtrial natriuretic hormoneKidneysBlood volume; increases sodium (therefore also water) loss in urineStretch of atrial wall by venous pressure
Gonads: TestisAndrogens (mainly testosterone)Genitalia and other tissuesReproductive function and sex characteristicsAnterior pituitary gonadotrophins
Ovary
  • Oestrogens
  • Progesterone
Uterus, breasts and other tissuesMenstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation
Pancreas
  • Insulin, glucagon
  • Somatostatin
  • Most cells
  • Other secretory cells in the pancreas
Blood levels, storage and cellular uptake of nutrients, notably glucose, but also proteins and fatsBlood levels of nutrients; autonomic nervous system; other gastrointesinal hormones
Alimentary tract
StomachGastrinGastric acid-secreting cellsGastrointestinal functions: motility, digestive juices and other secretionsLocal chemical and mechanical factors in the alimentary tract
Small intestine
  • Secretin
  • Cholecystokinin- pancreozymin (CCK-PZ)
  • Somatostatin, motilin
  • Other peptide hormones including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
  • Widespread on
  • GI tract
Several GI functions including bile flow, pancreatic enzyme and exocrine secretionsIngestion of food, distension of GI tract

androgens (anˑ·dr·jenz),

n.pl hormones produced in the adrenal cortex that maintain secondary male characteristics.
References in periodicals archive ?
Likewise, during prostate cancer development, the cancerous cells are initially dependant on androgens.
There is not a consensus case definition for androgen deficiency; there are few data on the performance of screening criteria; and the long-term implications of replacement are unclear in the most commonly affected populations: older men and men with chronic illness.
61) The increased production of steroid biosynthetic enzymes in resistant tumors suggests that one mechanism by which these carcinomas overcome androgen deprivation is by compensatory synthesis of androgens, with consequently increased AR activity.
Avoid any supplement that may interfere with androgen function (for example milk thistle)
Similarly, expression of activated Ras makes LNCaP epithelial prostate cancer cell line less dependent on androgens (Bakin et al.
Catterall and his colleagues wanted to study the Kap gene promoter to determine what parts of it were involved in the regulation of the gene by androgen.
In a Talk Paper released by the FDA, the agency noted that "questions about the net benefits of estrogen / androgen combination products require resolution if the long-term availability of such products is to be supported for any use.
Los ANGELES--A newly published consensus statement on female androgen insufficiency offers a working definition of the condition and an algorithm for its management.
Second, androgens make ovarian cells more sensitive to follicle-stimulating hormone or FSH, which promotes follicle growth.
If we assume that androgens are necessary for the development of carcinoma then the neoplastic processes must have started before the orchidectomy and were stimulated by prolonged exposure to estrogens in this patient.
USC researchers plan to include women in future studies, since androgens also are important for maintaining bone mass.