anaplastic thyroid carcinoma


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anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

The most aggressive of all thyroid malignancies, which accounts for only 2–5% of thyroid carcinomas but 40% of thyroid cancer-related deaths. The typical history is of a rapid increase in size of a long-standing cold thyroid nodule in an elderly patient; it is more common in iodine-deficient geographic regions and in a background of prior thyroid pathology (e.g., goitre or thyroid cancer); up to 80% have a history of well- (papillary, follicular) or poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Local invasion (e.g., trachea, oesophagus) is common.

Clinical findings
Hoarse voice, cough, haemoptysis, tracheal obstruction; physical exam may reveal nodules in thyroid.

Lab
Thyroid function is usually normal.

Diagnosis
Biopsy.
 
Management
Generally palliative; 50% are inoperable at the time of diagnosis; surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are essentially useless.

Prognosis
Anaplastic carcinoma is an aggressive disease with early metastases in lung (50% of cases), bone and brain; median survival is 4­–6 months.
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Incidence of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma reported in western literature is 0.
The definitive distinction between thyroid lymphoma and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is traditionally made via an open biopsy and histopathologic examination.
PET-CT staging and post-therapeutic monitoring of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
p53 constrains progression to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a Braf-mutant mouse model of papillary thyroid cancer.
Thyroglobulin is an excellent marker of papillary and follicular carcinomas but is a poor marker of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas and, as might be expected, is not a marker of medullary (neuroendocrine) carcinomas of the thyroid.
Subsequent imaging (figure) and biopsy identified the mass as an anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
Nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma (NMTC) is an endocrine-related cancer which originates from follicular epithelial cells, including papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
Jean Woods, 49, of Ingleby Barwick, was devastated to be told she had anaplastic thyroid carcinoma - thyroid cancer - on November 8.
The poster entitled Phase II study of Combretastatin A4 Phosphate (CA4P) in patients with advanced anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), reported that 21 patients have been enrolled in the trial to date.
In contrast, in our experience, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma tends to be negative.
In 1984, Carcangiu et al described a thyroid neoplasm whose characteristics placed it between well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with respect to its morphologic, biologic, and clinical behavior.
The FNAB test results from the thyroid were consistent with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.