ammonium

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Related to Ammonium salt: Quaternary ammonium salt

ammonium

 [ah-mo´ne-um]
a hypothetical radical, NH4, forming salts analogous to those of the alkaline metals.
ammonium carbonate a mixture of ammonium compounds used as a liquefying expectorant in the treatment of chronic bronchitis and similar lung disorders. It is sometimes used as a reflex stimulant in “smelling salts” because of the strong ammonia odor it gives off.
ammonium chloride colorless or white crystals, with a cool, salty taste, used as an expectorant because it liquefies bronchial secretions. In the body it is changed to urea and hydrochloric acid, and thus is useful in acidifying the urine and increasing the rate of urine flow. Excessive dosage may produce acidosis.
ammonium lactate lactic acid neutralized with ammonium hydroxide, applied topically in the treatment of ichthyosis vulgaris and xerosis.

am·mo·ni·um

(ă-mō'nē-yŭm),
An ion, NH4+, formed by combining NH3 and H+ (the pKa value is 9.24); acts as a univalent metal in forming ammonium compounds.

ammonium

/am·mo·ni·um/ (ah-mo´ne-um) the hypothetical radical, NH4, forming salts analogous to those of the alkaline metals.
ammonium carbonate  a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) and ammonium carbamate (NH2CO2NH4), used as a stimulant, as in smelling salts, and as an expectorant.
ammonium chloride  a systemic and urinary acidifying agent and diuretic, also used orally as an expectorant.
ammonium lactate  lactic acid neutralized with ammonium hydroxide, applied topically in the treatment of ichthyosis vulgaris and xerosis.

ammonium (NH4+)

an ion formed by the reaction of ammonia (NH3) with a hydrogen ion (H+). The ammonium ion is highly soluble in water but does not pass easily through cell membranes, as does the ammonia molecule, and its rate of excretion is influenced in part by the acidity of urine. The lower the pH, the greater the proportion of ammonium ions present, assuming a constant level of ammonia production from amino acid metabolism.

storage lesion

Transfusion medicine The constellation of changes occurring in a unit of packed red cells during storage. See Red cell preservatives.
Storage lesions
Ammonium to 470 µmol/L–US: 800 µg/dL
Free Hb in plasma from 82 to 6580 mg/L–US: 8.2 to 658 mg/dL
K+ from 4.2 to 78.5 mmol/L–US: 4.2 to 78.5 mEq/L
ATP from 100% to 45%
2,3 DPG to < 10% of original levels–replenished within 24 hours of transfusion
Labile proteins, eg complement, fibronectin and coagulation factors ↓ to negligible
Na+ from 169 to 111 mmol/L–US: 169 to 111 mEq/L
pH from 7.6 to 6.7
Adverse physiologic effects of stored blood is negligible in the absence of a previous compromise of the Pt's–recipient's status

am·mo·ni·um

(ă-mō'nē-ŭm)
The ion, NH4+, formed by combination of NH3 and H+; behaves as a univalent metal in forming compounds.

ammonium

a hypothetical radical, NH4, forming salts analogous to those of the alkaline metals. See also ammonia.

ammonium acetate
a weak diuretic and feed supplement.
ammonium bifluoride
wood preservative; causes diarrhea and fall in milk yield in cattle.
ammonium carbonate, ammonium chloride
saline expectorants used for the purpose of liquefying pulmonary secretions. Effectiveness has not been proven. They are sometimes used as a reflex stimulant because of the strong ammonia given off. The chloride salt is used mainly as a urinary acidifier. Excessive dosage may produce acidosis.
ammonium magnesium phosphate
see magnesium ammonium phosphate.
ammonium metavanadate
experimentally causes vanadium poisoning.
ammonium nitrate
causes nitrate poisoning.
ammonium oxalate
causes oxalate poisoning.
ammonium phosphate
a feed additive for cattle. The monobasic salt provides 27% phosphorus and 13% nitrogen, while the dibasic salt provides 23% phosphorus and 21% nitrogen.
ammonium sulfamate
used as a herbicide; cattle and deer eating treated plants may be poisoned.
ammonium sulfate
causes ammonia poisoning.
References in periodicals archive ?
But there is a marginal improvement in tensile strength for this system compared with montmorillonite modified with dimethyl hydrogenated tallow 2-ethylhexyl quaternary ammonium salt system, reported earlier (38), due to the presence of functional hydroxyl groups in OMC-OH which enhances the ultrainterfacial interaction between clay layers and polymer matrix.
Three observations support this view: firstly, the ionic ammonium salt is more stable in mixtures with more water so the concentration of the nonionic monomers is diminished.
Rheometric measurements show an increase in the viscosity as well as enhanced shear thinning for samples with larger input energies and excess amounts of DTMA Br alkyl ammonium salt (see Fig.
This implies that organic solvent THF has the better opportunity to promote the intercalation of the ammonium salt into the gallery space of magadiite.
They consist of a mixture of quaternary ammonium salts with various lengths of saturated and unsaturated alkyl chains.
Results for the ODAB methyl iodide quaternary ammonium salt are not shown because this compound was insoluble in the ionomer solutions and films.
While there are over a dozen chemical classes of biocides, the majority are cationic surfactants such as quaternary ammonium salts referred to in the industry as "quats.
In this complex, the phenyl group and bromine atom are in the trans position, while the bromide ion of the ammonium salt is above the C-Pd-P plane (Pd-Br distance is 4.
NR (standard Malaysian type grade SMR 10) was used as base polymer, reinforced with two kinds of clays: The first clay was modified by dimethyl-di(hydrogenated tallow) alkyl ammonium salt (clay-QUAT) and the second by octadecylamine (clay-PA).
Again using potassium and sodium salts were more stable and they seemed to be superior to ammonium salt (an established method).
The use of choline chloride, as shown in Figure 5, is interesting because this quaternary ammonium salt forms a liquid with complexing agent in a same phase, making eutectic ILs.
The corrosion brought about by the ammonium salt on concrete may lead to the generation of calcium salts soluble in water and ammonia.