aminoglycoside

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Related to Aminoglycoside antibiotics: gentamicin, Macrolide antibiotics

aminoglycoside

 [ah-me″no-gli´ko-sīd]
any of a group of antibacterial antibiotics derived from species of Streptomyces; they interfere with the function of bacterial ribosomes. They contain an inositol moiety substituted with two amino or guanidino groups and with one or more sugars or aminosugars. The group includes amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, and tobramycin. They are used to treat infections caused by gram-negative organisms and are classified as bactericidal agents because of their interference with bacterial replication. All are highly toxic, requiring frequent monitoring of blood serum levels and careful observation of the patient for early signs of toxicity, particularly ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

a·mi·no·gly·co·side

(ă-mē'nō-glī'kō-sīd),
Any one of a group of bacteriocidal antibiotics derived from species of Streptomyces or Micromonosporum and characterized by two or more amino sugars joined by a glycoside linkage to a central hexose; aminoglycosides act by causing misreading and inhibition of protein synthesis on bacterial ribosomes and are effective against aerobic gram-negative bacilli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Some commonly used aminoglycosides are streptomycin, neomycin, and gentamicin.

aminoglycoside

/ami·no·gly·co·side/ (-gli´ko-sīd) any of a group of antibacterial antibiotics (e.g., streptomycin, gentamicin) derived from various species of Streptomyces or produced synthetically; they interfere with the function of bacterial ribosomes.

aminoglycoside

(ə-mē′nō-glī′kə-sīd′, ăm′ə-)
n.
Any of a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as streptomycin, derived from species of Streptomyces or Micromonospora bacteria and used to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacteria.

aminoglycoside

Any of a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics (amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, netilmicin, neomycin, framycetin, streptomycin, tobramycin) which are used primarily against aerobic gram-negative bacteria.
 
Pharmacodynamics
Poorly absorbed per os; poor penetration of CNS-BBB; rapid excretion if kidneys are normal.
 
Types
Gentamicin, streptomycin, tobramycin.
 
Toxicity
Dose-related (kidneys, vestibular, auditory and neuromuscular systems), minor skin rash, drug fever, decreased Mg2+, decreased Ca2+, decreased K+; it is common practice to monitor patients receiving AGs.

aminoglycoside

Therapeutics Any of a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics–amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, netilmicin, neomycin, framycetin, streptomycin, tobramycin, which are used primarily against aerobic gram-negative bacteria Pharmacodynamics Poorly absorbed per os, poor penetration of CNS–BBB, rapid excretion if kidneys are normal Types Gentamicin, streptomycin, tobramycin Toxicity Dose-related–kidneys, vestibular, auditory, and neuromuscular systems, minor skin rash, drug fever, ↓ Mg2+, ↓ Ca2+, ↓ K+; it is common practice to monitor Pts receiving AGs. See Therapeutic drug monitoring.

aminoglycoside 

Any one of a group of antibiotics composed of amino sugars in glycoside linkage which act by interfering with the synthesis of bacterial proteins. It is used in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Examples: framycetin, gentamicin, neomycin and tobramycin.

a·mi·no·gly·co·side

(ă-mē'nō-glī'kō-sīd)
Any bacteriocidal antibiotic derived from species of Streptomyces or Micromonosporum; effective against aerobic gram-negative bacilli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

aminoglycoside

any of a group of bacterial antibiotics derived from various species of Streptomyces that interfere with the function of bacterial ribosomes. These compounds contain an inositol moiety substituted with two amino or guanidino groups and with one or more sugars or aminosugars.
The aminoglycosides include gentamicin, streptomycin, tobramycin, amikacin, kanamycin and neomycin. They are used to treat infections caused by gram-negative organisms and are classified as bactericidal agents because of their interference with bacterial replication. All of the aminoglycoside antibiotics are highly toxic, requiring monitoring of blood serum levels at frequent intervals and careful observation of the patient for early signs of toxicity, particularly ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, children with non syndromic deafness without any exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics were observed to be only 2.
He is positive that the aminoglycoside antibiotics could be used in a cream or gel format that could someday be a simple way to prevent the transmission of HIV from men to women.
Nektar Therapeutics (San Carlos, CA) announced that the United States Patent and Trademark Office issued United States Patent 7,368,102, which covers compositions and methods for creating and delivering Tobramycin Inhalation Powder and other aminoglycoside antibiotics delivered via Nektar's proprietary Dry Powder Inhaled Technology.
Many aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AME) exist and by testing the susceptibility of isolates against a range of aminoglycoside antibiotics, a pattern of resistance emerges that is unique to a specific enzyme (6).
In particular, they look at the enzymatic capabilities of micro-organisms to introduce chemical modifications that negate the biological activity of beta-lactams or aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Monitoring aminoglycoside antibiotics in serum and plasma.
The assay is sensitive to interference from aminoglycoside antibiotics, and the extent of interference varies with different PRM reagents (1, 2, 4-7).
Cephalosporin and aminoglycoside antibiotics are currently recommended for infection prophylaxis in high-energy open tibial shaft fractures.
Effect of structural modifications on the biological properties of aminoglycoside antibiotics containing 2-deoxystreptamine.
By binding aminoglycoside antibiotics to bacterial RNA, Wong is disrupting the synthesis of proteins at the point where resistance usually begins, and at the same time suppressing the creation of the bacterial enzymes that cause antibiotic resistance.
ASPIRIN could prevent deafness associated with taking aminoglycoside antibiotics, according to researchers at the University of Michigan.