American trypanosomiasis


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Related to American trypanosomiasis: African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis

trypanosomiasis

 [tri-pan″o-so-mi´ah-sis]
infection with trypanosomes.
African trypanosomiasis an often fatal disease of Africa caused by Trypanosoma gambiense or T. rhodesiense and involving the central nervous system. The parasites are transmitted to human beings from cattle or other animals by the bite of the tsetse fly. Usually the first symptom is inflammation at the site of the bite, appearing within 48 hours. Within several weeks the parasites invade the blood and lymph, and eventually they attack the central nervous system. Characteristic symptoms include intermittent fever, rapid heartbeat, and enlargement of the lymph nodes and spleen. In the advanced stage of the disease there are personality changes, apathy, sleepiness, disturbances of speech and gait, and severe emaciation.



Pharmacologic treatment should begin as soon as possible and is based on lab results and patient symptoms. suramin, pentamidine isethionate, and melarsoprol are the most common medications used. Pentamidine isethionate or suramin may be injected to remove parasites from the blood or lymph nodes before onset of disease, but the most effective preventive measure is eradication of the tsetse fly.
American trypanosomiasis (South American trypanosomiasis) a form found from the southern United States south into South America, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi; it is transmitted to humans from wild animals by means of the feces of a blood-sucking bug. The parasites multiply around the points of entry before entering the blood and eventually attacking the heart, brain, and other tissues. Called also Chagas' disease.



The acute form often attacks children. Early symptoms include swelling of the eyelids and the development of a hard, red, painful nodule on the skin. Enlargement of the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen occurs, along with inflammation of the heart muscle, psychic changes, and general debility. In adults the chronic form often resembles heart disease.

The control strategy suggested by the World Health Organization is to interrupt transmission of the disease by the vectors and to systematically screen blood donors. Preventive measures, such as the wearing of protective clothing and the use of insecticides, are of primary importance. Medication with antiprotozoal agents is usually effective when administered during the acute stage of infection.

South A·mer·i·can try·pan·o·so·mi·a·sis

trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma (or Schizotrypanum) cruzi and transmitted by certain species of reduviid (triatomine) bugs. In its acute form, it is seen most frequently in young children, with swelling of the skin at the site of entry, most often the face, and regional lymph node enlargement; in its chronic form it can assume several aspects, commonly cardiomyopathy, but megacolon and megaesophagus also occur; natural reservoirs include dogs, armadillos, rodents, and other domestic, domiciliated, and wild mammals.

American trypanosomiasis

American trypanosomiasis

American sleeping sickness, agent T cruzi–Chagas' disease Vector Reduviid–kissing bug Clinical The acute form most commonly affects infants, causing malaise, fever, hepatosplenomegaly; the chronic or asymptomatic form is more subtle and is accompanied by altered cardiac conduction–the most common cause of CHF in South America, megaesophagus, megacolon Management Melarsoprol, a toxic agent used for end-stage meningoencephalitic disease or propoxydecanoic acid, a myristic acid analogue which is highly toxic to, and specific for trypanosome, eflornithine

American trypanosomiasis

a disease of humans caused by Trypanosoma cruzi in which many animal species can act as carriers. The disease in dogs includes anemia, debility and splenomegaly; in cats there are posterior paralysis and convulsions. The disease is transmitted by reduviid bugs. Called also Chagas' disease.
References in periodicals archive ?
The World Health Organization considers American trypanosomiasis to be the most serious parasitic disease in Latin America (2).
American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease)--a tropical disease now in the United States.
Chagas disease, also known as American Trypanosomiasis, is an infection caused by the parasite, trypanosoma cruzi.
These are seriously disabling or life-threatening diseases -- such as malaria, tuberculosis (TB), Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease), and visceral leishmaniasis (kala azar) -- which mainly affect people in developing countries, for which treatment options are inadequate or do not exist, and for which R&D is insufficient or non-existent.
They said they have tested coyote carcasses periodically since and found coyotes carry many diseases: babesiosis, blastomycosis, canine hepatitis, hepatozoonosis, histoplasmosis, hookworms, scabies, American trypanosomiasis and the plague.
Carl Franzblau, president of Hemagen, said that Chagas, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is an insect-borne parasitic disease which also can be transmitted by standard blood transfusion.

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