hematopoietic progenitor cells, human cord blood

(redirected from Allocord)

hematopoietic progenitor cells, human cord blood

(hee-mat-oh-poe-et-ik proe-jen-i-ter sels, kord blud ) ,

Allocord

(trade name),

HPC, Cord Blood

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: none assigned
Pharmacologic: blood products
Pregnancy Category: C

Indications

Adjunctive treatment (with a preparative regimen which includes immunosuppressives) in patients undergoing unrelated donor hematopoietic progenitor stem cell transplantation as part of hematopoietic and immunologic reconstitution; as part of a regimen in patients with hematopoietic system disorders that are inherited, acquired or due to myeloablative treatment.

Action

Following intravenous administration HPC, Cord Blood, migrate to bone marrow where division and maturation follows. Functional cells are then released into circulation or migrate to sites of action.
Derived from human umbililcal cord blood and placenta

Therapeutic effects

Restoration of blood counts and function including immunologic activity.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: IV administration results in complete bioavialability
Distribution: Unk
Metabolism and Excretion: Unk
Half-life: Unk

Time/action profile (hematopoietic recovery times)

ROUTEneutrophilsplateletserythrocytes
IV25–27 days90–113 days64 days

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: HypersensitivityKnown allergy to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), human serum albumin or dextran 40
Use Cautiously in: Renal impairment (safe use had not been established) Geriatric: Consider age-related decrease in cardiac, renal or hepatic function, concurrent disease states and drug therapy Obstetric: Use during pregnancy only if potential benefit justifies potential risk to the fetus

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Respiratory

  • hypoxia

Cardiovascular

  • bradycardia (most frequent)
  • hypertension (most frequent)
  • tachycardia

Gastrointestinal

  • nausea (most frequent)
  • vomiting (most frequent)

Genitourinary

  • hemoglobinuria

Miscellaneous

  • allergic reactions including anaphylaxis
  • engraftment syndrome (life-threatening)
  • infusion reactions (life-threatening)
  • graft failure (life-threatening)
  • graft versus host disease (life-threatening)
  • leukemia (life-threatening)
  • post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) (life-threatening)
  • fever (most frequent)
  • transmission of infectious diseases
  • transmission of rare genetic diseases

Interactions

Drug-Drug interaction

None noted

Route/Dosage

Intravenous (Adults and Children) Minimum dose— 2.5 x 107 nucleated cells/kg at cyropreservation (limit DMSO administration to 1 G/kg body weight/day).\

Availability

Suspension for intravenous use (contains 10% DMSO, human serum albumin and 1% Dextran 40 ): 5 x 108total nucleated cells with at least 1.25 x 108viable CD34+ cells at the time of cryopreservation per unit

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Monitor for hypersensitivity reactions (bronchospasm, wheezing, angioedema, pruritus, hives, anaphylaxsis) during and following infusion. May be due to DMSO, Dextran 40, or a plasma component. Premedicate prior to infusion and treat as needed.
  • Monitor for infusion reactions. Expected reactions include nausea, vomiting, fever, rigors, chills, flushing, dyspnea, hypoxemia, chest tightness, hypertension, tachycardia, bradycardia, dysgeusia, hematuria, and mild headache. Premedicate with antipyretics, histamine antigonists, and corticosteroids. If severe reaction (respiratory distress, severe bronchospasm, severe bradycardia with heart block or other arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, hypotension, hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, renal dysfunction, encephalopathy, loss of consciousness, seizure) occurs, may be due to amount of DSMO. May begin within minutes of start of infusion and may intensify and not peak for several hours after completion. Discontinue infusion if a reaction occurs.
  • Monitor for signs and symptoms of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (fever, rash, elevated bilirubin and liver enzymes, diarrhea). Administer immunosuppressive drugs to decrease risk of GVHD.
  • Monitor for signs and symptoms of engraftment syndrome (fever, rash during peri-engraftment period, unexplained weight gain, hypoxemia, pulmonary infiltrates in the absence of fluid overload or cardiac disease). May progress to multiorgan failure and death if untreated. Treat with corticosteroids.
  • Lab Test Considerations: Monitor absolute neutrophil count for evidence graft failure, failure to achieve absolute neutrophil count >500 microliter blood by Day 42 after transplantation. Primary cause is immunologic rejection. May test for HLA antibodies prior to transplantation for a suitable type.
    • Monitor blood for Epstein-Barr virus DNA in patients high-risk for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Patients who have received antithymocyte globulin may be at greater risk.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Deficient knowledge, related to medication regimen (Patient/Family Teaching)

Implementation

  • Should be prepared by a trained health care professional and administered under supervision of a qualified health care professional.
  • Do not irradiate.
  • Limit DMSO administration to 1 G/kg body weight/day.
  • Emergency medications must be readily available during administration.
  • Patient should be well hydrated prior to administration.
  • Premedicate prior to administration with antipyretics, histamine antagonists, and corticosteroids.
  • Intravenous Administration
  • Intermittent Infusion: Do not administer in same tubing as medications or fluids other than 0.9% NaCl. May filter through a 170–260 micron filter designed to remove clots. Do not use filter designed to remove leukocytes. May be stored at 4–25° C for up to 4 hr.
  • For multiple units, infuse each unit independently; if a reaction occurs, manage prior to thawing next unit.
  • Rate: Adults — 100 mL/hr, increase rate as tolerated. Children — 1 mL/kg/hr, increase rate as tolerated. If fluid load is not tolerated, reduce infusion rate. Discontinue infusion if allergic reaction or moderate to severe infusion reaction occurs.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Inform patient of purpose of hematopoetic progenitor cells.
  • Advise patient to notify health care professional immediately if signs and symptoms of infusion reactions or graft-versus-host disease (rash, diarrhea, yellow eyes) occur.
  • Instruct female patient to notify health care professional if pregnancy is suspected.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Absolute neutrophil count ≥500 microliter blood by Day 42 after transplantation.