Allium sativum


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Related to Allium sativum: Allicin, Cajanus cajan, Zingiber officinale

garlic

(gar-lik) ,

Alli sativa bulbus

(trade name),

Allium sativum

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: lipid lowering agents
Oral: Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease prevention, colorectal and gastric cancer prevention Topical: Dermal fungal infections including tinea corporis, cruris, and pedis.

Action

May have HMG-CoA inhibitor properties in lowering cholesterol, but less effectively than statin drugs; vasodilatory and antiplatelet properties.

Therapeutic effects

Decreased cholesterol levels.
Decreased platelet aggregation.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Garlic oil is well absorbed.
Distribution: Unknown.
Metabolism and Excretion: Kidney and lungs.
Half-life: Unknown.

Time/action profile

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
PO4–25 wkunknownunknown

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Bleeding disorders. Discontinue use 1-2 weeks prior to surgery.
Use Cautiously in: Diabetes, gastrointestinal infection or inflammation.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

  • dizziness

Gastrointestinal

  • Irritation of the mouth, esophagus, and stomach
  • nausea
  • bad breath
  • vomiting
  • flatulence
  • diarrhea

Dermatologic

  • Contact dermatitis and other allergic reactions (asthma, rash, anaphylaxis [rare])
  • Diaphoresis

Hematologic

  • Chronic use or excessive dose may lead to ↓ hemoglobin production and lysis of RBCs
  • platelet dysfunction
  • prolonged bleeding time

Miscellaneous

  • body odor

Interactions

Use of garlic with anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents and thrombolytics may ↑ risk of bleeding.May ↓ the effectiveness of contraceptive drugs and cyclosporine.May ↓ plasma concentrations of saquinavir, nevirapine, delavirdine, and efavirenz.May ↓ isoniazid levels by 65%.Herbs with anticoagulant or antiplatelet properties may increase bleeding risk when combined with garlic, including: angelica, anise, asafoetida, bogbean, boldo, capsicum, celery, chamomile, clove, danshen, dong quai, fenugreek, feverfew, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, horse chestnut, horseradish, licorice, meadowsweet, prickly ash, onion, papain, passionflower, poplar, quassia, red clover, turmeric, wild carrot, wild lettuce, willow, and others.
Oral (Adults) 200–400 mg tid of standardized garlic powder extract with 1.3% allin. Fresh garlic—1–7 cloves per day. One clove contains approximately 4 grams of garlic.
Topical (Adults) Tinea infections—0.4% cream, 0.6% gel, or 1% gel applied bid x 7 days.

Availability

Capsules: OTC
Tablets: OTC
Topical cream :
Topical gel:
Fresh garlic: OTC

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Elicit from patients their usual dietary intake especially in regard to fat consumption.
  • Assess patient’s reason for using this herbal remedy and knowledge about hyperlipidemia.
  • Ascertain the amount of garlic the patient consumes on a regular basis.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Deficient knowledge, related to medication regimen (Patient/Family Teaching)
Noncompliance (Patient/Family Teaching)

Implementation

  • Take orally as fresh clove, capsule or tablet.
  • Do not exceed recommended dose.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Instruct patients about the need to follow a healthy diet (low in fat and high in vegetables and fruits) in conjunction with garlic. Other lipid reducing strategies, such as exercise and smoking cessation, should also be employed.
  • Inform patients that there are other more effective agents for lipid reduction available.
  • Emphasize the need for follow up exams with a healthcare professional to assess effectiveness of the regimen.
  • Warn patients about the potential for bleeding and not to take this herbal remedy without notifying their healthcare provider if they are on other medications. Instruct patients undergoing elective surgery to stop using garlic 2 weeks prior to surgery and to notify the surgeon that they are taking garlic in the event of emergent surgery.
  • Notify patients that allergies may occur and to discontinue use if symptoms develop.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Normalization of lipid profile.
  • Prevention of cardiac disease.
A culinary and medicinal perennial plant that contains amino acids and volatile oils (e.g., allicin and vitamins A, B and C) and owes its aroma to the high content of selenium, which is eliminated through the lungs and skin as dimethyl selenide
Chinese medicine Chinese chive, da suan Garlic is used in traditional Chinese medicine as an antimicrobial and general tonic, and for colds, cough, diarrhoea, gastrontestinal complaints, parasites, rheumatic disease, shellfish poisoning, tuberculosis, tumours and vaginitis, as well as to increase internal secretions, and topically for athlete’s foot, fungal and parasitic infections. See Chinese herbal medicine
Herbal medicine In Western herbal medicine, garlic is used internally for atherosclerosis, colds, coughs, flu, gastrointestinal complaints, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, liver and gallbladder disease and as an anthelmintic; as with Chinese herbal medicine, it is used topically for athlete’s foot, fungal and parasitic infections and as a rubefacient. See Herbal medicine

Allium sativum

(al′ē-ŭm să-tē′vŭm, tī′) [L., planted garlic]
The scientific name for garlic.

Allium sativum,

n See garlic.

Patient discussion about Allium sativum

Q. Is garlic helpful in heart ailments? I have heard that garlic is very good for cardiac health and using in curries or cooked with foods will be helpful. I have also heard that it has anti-inflammatory substances and also helps in weight loss. Is garlic helpful in heart ailments?

A. It acts as antioxidant and reduces the amount of free radicals in your body. It’s helpful once taken raw. But the raw garlic can cause bad breadth and blistering of skin and diarrhea. So, there should be a reduced intake of raw garlic. It’s better to have garlic in a cooked up form like in curries or with vegetables. This will also give the desired benefits of garlic and the side effect of over consumption of garlic will also be reduced.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_jOrw1eB-uc&eurl=http://www.imedix.com/health_community/vng-A24JmWJY_iceland_heart_protection_formula?q=heart&feature=player_embedded

More discussions about Allium sativum
References in periodicals archive ?
Benificial effect of Allium sativum and Allium tuberosum on experimental hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis.
Table 1: Effect of methanol extract of Allium sativum leaves on blood glucose level in hyperglycemic mice following 120 minutes of glucose loading.
IN VITRO VIRUCIDAL EFFECTS OF ALLIUM SATIVUM (GARLIC) EXTRACT AND COMPOUNDS.
Low concentrations of tobacco leaf extract exerted a stimulating effect, whereas high concentration acted as a mitodepressant, on root-tip cells of Allium sativum L.
Cloves of Allium sativum (garlic) were collected from a local market in Dhaka city, Bangladesh during June 2013.
Notably, quercetin is also present in cloves of Allium sativum.
The patent, titled "Compositions Containing Allium Sativum Linn.
Prasaplai is composed of twelve ingredients: ten crude plant drugs (the roots of Acorus calamus L, the bulbs of Allium sativum L, the pericarps of Citrus hystrix DC, the rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe, the bulbs of Eleutherine americana Merr, the seeds of Nigella sativa L, the fruits of Piper chaba Hunt, the fruits of Piper nigrum L, the rhizomes of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.
The nephroprotective effect of aqueous extract of Allium sativum bulbs has been attributed to attenuation of vascular endothelial growth factor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 expression in diabetic rats (Shiju et al.
Superiority of intralesional immunotherapy with Corynebacterium parvum and Allium sativum in control of murine transitional cell carcinoma.