alkylating agents


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Related to alkylating agents: Antimetabolites

alkylating agents

 [al´kĭ-lāt-ing]
a group of synthetic compounds containing alkyl groups that combine readily with other molecules. Their action seems to be chiefly on the DNA in the nucleus of the cell, so that they are cell cycle phase nonspecific. They cross-link the strands of DNA, preventing its replication and the transcription of RNA; the major site of action is on the base guanine. They are primarily used in chemotherapy of cancer (see antineoplastic therapy). However, they do not damage malignant cells selectively, but also have a toxic action on normal cells; all killing occurs primarily in rapidly proliferating tissue. Locally they cause blistering of the skin and damage to the eyes and respiratory tract. Systemic toxic effects are nausea and vomiting, reduction in both leukocytes and erythrocytes, hemorrhagic tendencies, amenorrhea or impaired spermatogenesis, damage to the intestinal mucosa, and alopecia. Among the agents of this group used in therapy are busulfan, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and thiotepa; the nitrogen mustardschlorambucil, melphalan, and mechlorethamine; and the nitrosoureascarmustine, lomustine, and streptozocin. They may be carcinogenic in humans; some have been linked to bladder cancer and acute leukemia. However, the major benefits obtained in treating diseases such as lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, breast cancer, and multiple myeloma far outweigh the risks of developing a second malignancy.

alkylating agents

agents that react with groups such as amino [NH2 ], carboxyl [COOH], hydroxyl [OH] and phosphate [PO4 ] groups, and replace them with alkyl groups, such as CH3, CH2 CH3 groups. They may act as MUTAGENS or as ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS.
References in periodicals archive ?
One aspect of her research focuses on expression of genes as a result of exposure to alkylating agents.
Cancer cells often call upon that same protein to repair the otherwise fatal damage inflicted by alkylating agents.
Of the survivors, 63 percent (1,736) had received radiation for their cancer as children, and 44 percent of men (496) and 50 percent of women (810) had received chemotherapy with alkylating agents.
CHRONOS-3: A Phase III randomized, double-blind study evaluating the efficacy and safety of copanlisib in combination with rituximab versus rituximab monotherapy in patients with relapsed iNHL who have received at least one prior line of treatment, including rituximab and an alkylating agent (NCT02367040)
Significantly, both Cd(II) and Pb(II) display co-genotoxic effects when combined with methyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, alkylating agents that generate significant levels of BER-type DNA intermediates, including abasic lesions (Fatur et al.
MDxHealth PredictMDx for Brain test has been shown on thousands of patients to be able to distinguish which cancer patients are likely to respond to the most commonly used class of brain cancer drugs called alkylating agents.
very good results were obtained with cis-platin from the platinum group of alkylating agents.
She and her colleagues are examining recovery pathways for other alkylating agents and ultraviolet light, and each shows a unique pattern.
lymphocytic leukemia in people who have been treated with alkylating agents and have, failed treatment with fiudarabine.
About the MGMT Test: PredictMDx for Brain[TM] PredictMDx for Brain, MDxHealth's most advanced personalized treatment product is a test for predicting patient response to alkylating agents, a class of chemotherapy drugs.
DelMar's lead clinical compound, VAL-083 (dianhydrogalactitol) is a first-in-class alkylating agent with a novel cytotoxic mechanism distinct from other alkylating agents used in the treatment of cancer.
It induces apoptosis (cell suicide) due to its p53 dependent alkylating activity but with a more pronounced and longer lasting DNA damaging effect compared to other alkylating agents.