Akineton

Akineton

 [a″ki-ne´ton]
trademark for preparations of biperiden, an antidyskinetic.

biperiden

(by-per-i-den) ,

Akineton

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: antiparkinson agents
Pharmacologic: anticholinergics
Pregnancy Category: C

Indications

Adjunctive treatment of all forms of Parkinson’s disease, including drug-induced extrapyramidal effects and acute dystonic reactions.

Action

Blocks cholinergic activity in the CNS, which is partially responsible for the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
Restores the natural balance of neurotransmitters in the CNS.

Therapeutic effects

Reduction of rigidity and tremors.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Well absorbed after oral or IM administration.
Distribution: Unknown.
Metabolism and Excretion: Unknown.
Half-life: Unknown.

Time/action profile (relief of symptoms)

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
POunknownunknownunknown
IM10–30 minunknownunknown
IVunknownunknown1–8 hr

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity; Angle-closure glaucoma; Bowel obstruction; Megacolon; Tardive dyskinesia.
Use Cautiously in: Prostatic enlargement; Seizure disorders; Cardiac arrhythmias; Obstetric / Lactation: Safety not established; Geriatric: Increased risk of adverse reactions; lower doses may be necessary.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

  • confusion
  • depression
  • dizziness
  • hallucinations
  • headache
  • sedation
  • weakness

Ear, Eye, Nose, Throat

  • blurred vision (most frequent)
  • dry eyes (most frequent)
  • mydriasis

Cardiovascular

  • arrhythmias
  • hypotension
  • palpitations
  • tachycardia

Gastrointestinal

  • constipation (most frequent)
  • dry mouth (most frequent)
  • ileus
  • nausea

Genitourinary

  • hesitancy
  • urinary retention

Miscellaneous

  • decreased sweating

Interactions

Drug-Drug interaction

Additive anticholinergic effects with drugs sharing anticholinergic properties, such as antihistamines, phenothiazines, quinidine, disopyramide, and tricyclic antidepressants.Counteracts the cholinergic effects ofbethanechol.Antacids or antidiarrheals may ↓ absorption. ↑ anticholinergic effects with angel’s trumpet and jimson weed, and scopolia.

Route/Dosage

Parkinsonism
Oral (Adults) 2 mg 3–4 times daily initially (not to exceed 16 mg/day).
Extrapyramidal Reactions
Oral (Adults) 2 mg 1–3 times daily.
Intramuscular Intravenous (Adults) 2 mg, may repeat q 30 min (not to exceed 8 mg or 4 doses/24 hr).
Intramuscular (Children) 40 mcg (0.04 mg)/kg or 1.2 mg/m2, may repeat q 30 min (not to exceed 4 doses/24 hr).

Availability

Tablets: 2 mg
Injection: 5 mg/mL

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Assess parkinsonian and extrapyramidal symptoms (restlessness or desire to keep moving, rigidity, tremors, pill rolling, mask-like face, shuffling gait, muscle spasms, twisting motions, difficulty speaking or swallowing, loss of balance control) before and throughout therapy.
  • Assess bowel function daily. Monitor for constipation, abdominal pain, distention, or the absence of bowel sounds.
  • Monitor intake and output ratios and assess patient for urinary retention (dysuria, distended abdomen, infrequent voiding of small amounts, overflow incontinence).
  • After parenteral administration, monitor pulse and BP closely and maintain bed- rest for 1 hr. Advise patients to change positions slowly to minimize orthostatic hypotension.
  • Patients with mental illness are at risk of developing exaggerated symptoms of their disorder during early therapy with this medication. Withhold drug and notify health care professional if significant behavioral changes occur.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Impaired physical mobility (Indications)

Implementation

  • Oral: Administer with food or immediately after meals to minimize gastric irritation.
  • Intravenous Administration
  • Rate: Administer each dose over at least 1 min to minimize hypotension and mild bradycardia.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Advise patient to take medication exactly as directed. Take missed doses as soon as possible up to 2 hr before the next dose. Drug should be tapered gradually when discontinuing or a withdrawal reaction may occur (anxiety, tachycardia, insomnia, return of parkinsonian or extrapyramidal symptoms).
  • May cause drowsiness, dizziness, or blurred vision. Advise patient to avoid driving or other activities that require alertness until response to the drug is known.
  • Caution patient to change positions slowly to minimize orthostatic hypotension.
  • Advise patient that frequent mouth rinses, good oral hygiene, and sugarless gum or candy may decrease dry mouth. Patient should notify health care professional if dry mouth persists (saliva substitutes may be used). Also notify the dentist if dry mouth interferes with use of dentures.
  • Instruct patient to notify health care professional if difficulty with urination, constipation, abdominal discomfort, rapid or pounding heartbeat, confusion, eye pain, or rash occurs.
  • Advise patient to confer with health care professional before taking Rx,OTC, or herbal products, especially cold remedies, or drinking alcoholic beverages.
  • Caution patient that this medication decreases perspiration. Overheating may occur during hot weather. Patients should notify health care professional if they cannot remain indoors in an air-conditioned environment during hot weather.
  • Advise patient to avoid antacids or antidiarrheals within 1–2 hr of this medication.
  • Emphasize the importance of routine follow-up exams.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Decrease in tremors and rigidity and an improvement in gait and balance in Parkinson’s disease.
  • Resolution of drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions.

Akineton

a trademark for a peripheral anticholinergic (biperiden hydrochloride).
References in periodicals archive ?
Antiparkinsonism Agents -- L-DOPA, Sinemet, Symmetrel, Cogentin, Artane, Kemadrin, Benadryl, Akineton, Parlodel, Permax, Eldepryl
Under the terms of the agreement, Invida will conduct distribution, registration, and marketing activities for products that include Carfergot, Apresoline, Locasalen, Neomercazole, Erythrocin, Eryped, Tofranil, Akineton, and Ludiomil.