agglutinin

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Related to Agglutinins: Cold agglutinins

agglutinin

 [ah-gloo´tĭ-nin]
any substance causing agglutination (clumping together) of cells, particularly a specific antibody formed in the blood in response to the presence of an invading agent. Agglutinins are proteins (immunoglobulins) and function as part of the immune mechanism of the body. When the invading agents that bring about the production of agglutinins are bacteria, the agglutinins produced bring about agglutination of the bacterial cells.

Erythrocytes also may agglutinate when agglutinins are formed in response to the entrance of noncompatible blood cells into the bloodstream. A transfusion reaction is an example of the result of agglutination of blood cells brought about by agglutinins produced in the recipient's blood in response to incompatible or foreign cells (the donor's blood). Anti-Rh agglutinins are produced in cases of Rh incompatibility and can result in a condition known as erythroblastosis fetalis when the maternal blood is Rh negative and the fetal blood is Rh positive. (See also rh factor.)
cold agglutinin antibody that agglutinates erythrocytes or bacteria more efficiently at temperatures below 37°C than at 37°C.
group agglutinin one that has a specific action on certain organisms, but will agglutinate other species as well.
H agglutinin one that is specific for flagellar antigens of the motile strain of an organism.
immune agglutinin a specific agglutinin found in the blood after recovery from the disease or injection of the microorganism.
incomplete agglutinin one that at appropriate concentrations fails to agglutinate the homologous antigen.
O agglutinin one specific for somatic antigens of a microorganism.
platelet agglutinin an antibody capable of agglutinating platelets; these may be associated with a variety of disorders, with and without frank thrombocytopenia.
warm agglutinin an incomplete antibody that sensitizes and reacts optimally with erythrocytes at 37°C.

ag·glu·ti·nin

(ă-glū'ti-nin),
1. An antibody that causes clumping or agglutination of the bacteria or other cells that either stimulated the formation of the agglutinin, or contain immunologically similar, reactive antigen. Synonym(s): agglutinating antibody, immune agglutinin
2. A substance, other than a specific agglutinating antibody, that causes organic particles to agglutinate, for example, plant agglutinin.

agglutinin

/ag·glu·ti·nin/ (ah-gloo´tĭ-nin)
1. antibody which aggregates a particulate antigen, e.g., bacteria, following combination with the homologous antigen.
2. any substance other than antibody, e.g., lectin, that is capable of agglutinating particles.

anti-Rh agglutinin  an agglutinin not normally present in human plasma, which may be produced in Rh− mothers carrying an Rh+ fetus or after transfusion of Rh+ blood into an Rh− patient.
chief agglutinin  major a.
cold agglutinin  one that acts only at relatively low temperatures (0°–20° C).
group agglutinin  one that has a specific action on a particular group of microorganisms.
H agglutinin  one that is specific for flagellar antigens of the motile strain of a microorganism.
immune agglutinin  any agglutinating antibody.
incomplete agglutinin  one that at appropriate concentrations fails to agglutinate the homologous antigen.
leukocyte agglutinin  one that is directed against neutrophilic and other leukocytes.
major agglutinin  that present at highest titer in an antiserum.
minor agglutinin , partial agglutinin one present in agglutinative serum which acts on organisms and cells that are closely related to the specific antigen, but in a lower dilution.
warm agglutinin  an agglutinin more reactive at 37° C than at lower temperatures.

agglutinin

(ə-glo͞ot′n-ĭn)
n.
A substance, such as an antibody, that is capable of causing agglutination of a particular antigen, especially red blood cells or bacteria.

agglutinin

[əglo̅o̅′tinin]
an antibody that interacts with antigens, resulting in agglutination. Usually multivalent, agglutinins react with insoluble antigens in stable suspension to form a cross-linking lattice that may clump or precipitate. Agglutinins are used in blood typing and in identifying or estimating the strength of immunoglobulins or immune sera. Compare precipitin. See also blood typing, hemagglutination.

Agglutinin

Medspeak Any antigenic substance capable of agglutinating. See Neuroprotective agglutinin, 2-adrenoceptor agglutinin, Cold agglutinin, Febrile agglutinin, Mixed fieldagglutinin.

ag·glu·ti·nin

(ă-glū'ti-nin)
1. An antibody that causes clumping or agglutination of the bacteria or other cells that either stimulated the formation of the agglutinin or contain immunologically similar, reactive antigen.
2. A substance, other than a specific agglutinating antibody, that causes organic particles to agglutinate.

agglutinin

A substance that causes cells or other particles to clump together and, usually, to lose their former properties. ‘Warm’ agglutinins function at normal body temperatures; ‘cold’ agglutinins do so at lower temperatures. Agglutinins can cause severe ANAEMIA.

Agglutinin

An antibody that causes particulate antigens such as bacteria or other cells to clump together.

agglutinin

an antibody that causes clumping of bacteria or other cells

ag·glu·ti·nin

(ă-glū'ti-nin)
Antibody that causes clumping or agglutination of the bacteria or other cells that either stimulated the formation of the agglutinin or contain immunologically similar, reactive antigen.

agglutinin (əglōō´tinin),

n 1. a specific kind of antibody whose interaction with antigens is manifested as agglutination.
2. an antibody that agglutinates red blood cells or renders them agglutinable.

agglutinin

any substance causing agglutination (clumping together) of cells, particularly a specific antibody formed in the blood in response to an invading agent. Such agglutinating antibodies (see immunoglobulin) function as part of the immune mechanism of the body. When the invading agents that bring about the production of agglutinins are bacteria, the agglutinins produced bring about agglutination of the bacterial cells both in vivo and in vitro.
Erythrocytes also may be agglutinated by agglutinins that are naturally present in the blood, such as the presence of anti A antibody in humans with the blood group B erythrocytes, or such agglutinins may also be formed in response to the entrance of noncompatible blood cells into the bloodstream. A transfusion reaction is an example of the result of agglutination of blood cells brought about by agglutinins present in the recipient's blood.

cold agglutinin
antibody that acts only at low temperature.
cold agglutinin disease
an autoimmune disease in which erythrocyte autoantibodies, usually IgM, are most active at temperatures below 98.6°F (37°C). Agglutination occurs in capillaries of the extremities (tail, ears, nose and feet), particularly on exposure to cold, resulting in tissue necrosis in those areas. Hemolytic anemia is a variable feature.
group agglutinin
antibody made against a particular organism. One that has a specific action on certain organisms, but will agglutinate other, usually related species as well.
H agglutinin
one that is specific for flagellar antigens of bacteria.
immune agglutinin
a specific antibody found in the blood after recovery from the disease or injection of the microorganism.
incomplete agglutinin
antibody that at appropriate concentrations fails to agglutinate the homologous antigen for steric reasons.
normal agglutinin
a specific antibody found in the blood of an animal or of humans that has had no known exposure to the antigen with which it combines; these may be natural antibodies such as those directed against A and B blood group antigens in humans or cross-reacting antibodies produced after infection with a related microorganism.
O agglutinin
antibody specific for somatic or cell wall antigens of a bacterium.
partial agglutinin
antibody which agglutinates organisms closely related to the specific antigen, but at a lower dilution.
warm agglutinin
an incomplete antibody that sensitizes and reacts optimally with erythrocytes at 98.6°F (37°C).
References in periodicals archive ?
Apoptosis induction associated with cell cycle dysregulation by rice bran agglutinin.
Kit dosage, id-nacl / enzyme, enzymatic test and cold agglutinins in card with 6 microtubes containing gel in saline to reverse grouping of the abo system.
In addition, bacteria can be identified by using samples that contain agglutinins to specific bacteria.
Q When preheating a specimen with a severe cold agglutinin does not work (i.
A lipopolysaccharide binding agglutinin isolated from brown shrimp (Penaeus californiensis Holmes) haemolymph.
Epidemiological survey on anti-leptospire agglutinins in buffaloes from Vale do Ribeira (Brazil).
Test results for malaria (blood smear), agglutinins for typhoid fever, and surface antigen of hepatitis B virus were negative.
For example, patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, the presence of cold agglutinins is useful in diagnosis.
Abstract: A 40-year-old white male developed Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (IgM titer 1:256) as well as autoimmune hemolytic anemia due to cold agglutinins (titer of 1:512).
The spike-like hem agglutinins (HA) project from the virus and ``lock onto'' particular receptor molecules on the surface of cells in the lungs.
Pseudothrombocytopenia is often due to cold-reacting platelet agglutinins or platelet binding to neutrophils (platelet satellitism).