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plastic

 [plas´tik]
1. tending to build up tissues or to restore a lost part.
2. capable of being molded.
3. a high-molecular-weight polymeric material, usually organic, capable of being molded, extruded, drawn, or otherwise shaped and then hardened into a form.
4. material that can be molded.
plastic surgery surgery concerned with the restoration, reconstruction, correction, or improvement in the shape and appearance of body structures that are defective, damaged, or misshapen by injury, disease, or anomalous growth and development. This kind of surgery has been practiced for thousands of years. Artificial noses and ears have been found on Egyptian mummies. Medical records show that the ancient Hindus reconstructed noses by using skin flaps lifted from the cheek or forehead—a technique that was often practiced, since it was a custom to mutilate the noses of persons who broke the laws.
Skin Grafting. This is the most common procedure of plastic surgery, consisting of the replacement of severely damaged skin in one area with healthy skin from another area of the patient's body or from the body of a skin donor. (See further discussion at grafting.) With the advent of microsurgery, much of the inconvenience and lengthy waiting necessary for successful grafting of skin flaps has been eliminated.

The transplanting of tissues other than skin also is possible through microsurgery. Free-bone grafts can be used to provide rapid replacement of long bone defects, and free muscle transfers permit restoration of muscle function.
Repairing Mouth and Other Defects. Among common defects that can be corrected by plastic surgery are cleft lip and cleft palate. Others are webbed fingers and toes, protruding or missing ears, receding chins, and injured noses. In addition, the shape of various types of noses can be altered for the sake of appearance. rhytidectomy is another common type of plastic surgery, done on the face to improve the aging patient's appearance. It is popularly known as a face lift.
Facial Reconstruction. In facial reconstruction, missing bone and muscle, and sometimes skin, are replaced by substitutes. Sometimes the reconstruction is made with bone or cartilage taken from another part of the body, or sometimes it is made by artificial means.
Use of Prostheses. Often the substitute for missing tissue is a prosthesis, a replacement not made from living tissue. It may be inserted beneath the skin (such as to build out a receding chin) or attached to the skin surface (for example, to replace an ear). Prostheses attached to, not inserted beneath, the skin frequently are employed to fill out depressed or missing facial areas, the aftereffects of accidents, cancer, or war injuries. In building such a replacement, the surgeon first makes an impression of the face and a plaster cast of the impression. The substitute part is molded in wax or clay in the plaster cast, and from this model the actual replacement part is made. Such parts, molded and painted to match the texture and color of the skin, have been used to replace many structures, including missing ears and noses.
Use of Cartilage, Skin, and Bone. Noses and ears also have been reconstructed with rib cartilage and skin grafts. Eyebrows have been made by the use of skin grafts from the scalp, and chest deformities repaired by the use of bone chips from other parts of the body.

Sometimes a nose is remodeled to correct a hump or hook, or a saddle nose (a depression on the ridge), or a twisted nose. Incisions are made inside to avoid causing outside scars, and the surgeon either removes excess cartilage or bone, or inserts it, according to the improvement wanted. Cartilage and bone may be obtained from other parts of the body, usually the ribs or hip. After the operation, the skin over the nose adapts to the new structure.
Dermabrasion. Skin blemishes such as acne scars and pits can be “sandpapered” or planed. This technique, called dermabrasion, seeks to correct superficial blemishes and to remove superficial accumulations of pigment. However, as dermabrasion can occasionally cause increased scarring or introduce variation in skin color and texture, such treatment is infrequently performed today.

plas·tic

(plas'tik),
1. Capable of being formed or molded.
2. A material that can be shaped by pressure or heat to the form of a cavity or mold.
[G. plastikos, relating to molding]

plastic

/plas·tic/ (-tik)
1. tending to build up tissues to restore a lost part.
2. capable of being molded.
3. a high-molecular-weight polymeric material, usually organic, capable of being molded, extruded, drawn, or otherwise shaped and hardened into a form.
4. material that can be molded.

plastic

(plăs′tĭk)
adj.
1. Capable of being shaped or formed: plastic material such as clay.
2. Biology
a. Capable of building tissue; formative.
b. Able to change and adapt, especially by acquiring alternative pathways for sensory perception or motor skills. Used of the central nervous system.
n.
Any of various organic compounds produced by polymerization, capable of being molded, extruded, cast into various shapes and films, or drawn into filaments used as textile fibers.

plas′ti·cal·ly adv.
plas·tic′i·ty (-tĭs′ĭ-tē) n.

plastic

[plas′tik]
Etymology: Gk, plastikos
1 adj, tending to build up tissues or to restore a lost part.
2 adj, conformable; capable of being molded.
3 n, a high-molecular-weight polymeric material, usually organic, capable of being molded, extruded, drawn, or otherwise shaped and then hardened into a form.
4 n, material that can be molded.

plas·tic

(plas'tik)
1. Capable of being formed or molded.
2. A material that can be shaped by pressure or heat to the form of a cavity or mold.
[G. plastikos, relating to molding]
Plasmolysisclick for a larger image
Fig. 254 Plasmolysis . (a) Isotonic medium. (b) Hypertonic medium, showing plasmolysis.

plastic

capable of being modelled or moulded; capable of change.

plastic

describes a body, object or substance which after deformation does not return to its initial state. Contrast elasticity.

plastic

any material (including keratinous structures, e.g. nail or hair) that can be deformed by applied pressure or heat

plastic 

Various organic or synthetic materials (e.g. CR-39, HEMA, polymethyl methacrylate, polycarbonate, etc.) that can be transformed into solid shapes to make spectacle frames, contact lenses, ophthalmic lenses, etc. and can be made to have good optical surfaces, high light transmission and refractive indices and dispersions similar to that of crown or flint glass. See acetone; index of refraction; plastic spectacle frame.

plas·tic

(plas'tik)
1. Capable of being formed or molded.
2. A material that can be shaped by pressure or heat to the form of a cavity or mold.
[G. plastikos, relating to molding]

plastic,

n 1. a restorative material (e.g., amalgam, cement, gutta-percha, resin) that is soft at the time of insertion and may then be shaped or molded, after which it will harden or set.
adj 2. malleable; capable of being molded.
plastic base,
plastic closure,
n suturing of tissues that involves their displacement by sliding or rotation to create a surgical closure.
plastic strip,
n a clear plastic strip of celluloid or acrylic resin used as a matrix when silicate cement or acrylic is inserted into proximal prepared cavities in anterior teeth.
plastic surgery,
n branch of medicine that deals with the surgical alteration, replacement, restoration, or reconstruction of a visible part of the body to correct a structural or cosmetic defect.

plastic

1. tending to build up tissues to restore a lost part.
2. capable of being molded.
3. a substance produced by chemical condensation or by polymerization.
4. material that can be molded.

plastic dish dermatitis
an inflammatory skin reaction on the muzzle of dogs caused by a hypersensitivity to plastic feeding dishes.
plastic toy poisoning
nervous signs including ataxia, hyperexcitability and muscle twitching sometimes occur in cats after eating chidren's plastic toys made of rubber and polythene.
plastic vinyl sheeting
a surgical drape made of synthetic material with the advantage of not being capillary and not abrasive to exposed tissue.