African trypanosomiasis


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Related to African trypanosomiasis: African sleeping sickness, American trypanosomiasis, cholera, Human African trypanosomiasis

trypanosomiasis

 [tri-pan″o-so-mi´ah-sis]
infection with trypanosomes.
African trypanosomiasis an often fatal disease of Africa caused by Trypanosoma gambiense or T. rhodesiense and involving the central nervous system. The parasites are transmitted to human beings from cattle or other animals by the bite of the tsetse fly. Usually the first symptom is inflammation at the site of the bite, appearing within 48 hours. Within several weeks the parasites invade the blood and lymph, and eventually they attack the central nervous system. Characteristic symptoms include intermittent fever, rapid heartbeat, and enlargement of the lymph nodes and spleen. In the advanced stage of the disease there are personality changes, apathy, sleepiness, disturbances of speech and gait, and severe emaciation.



Pharmacologic treatment should begin as soon as possible and is based on lab results and patient symptoms. suramin, pentamidine isethionate, and melarsoprol are the most common medications used. Pentamidine isethionate or suramin may be injected to remove parasites from the blood or lymph nodes before onset of disease, but the most effective preventive measure is eradication of the tsetse fly.
American trypanosomiasis (South American trypanosomiasis) a form found from the southern United States south into South America, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi; it is transmitted to humans from wild animals by means of the feces of a blood-sucking bug. The parasites multiply around the points of entry before entering the blood and eventually attacking the heart, brain, and other tissues. Called also Chagas' disease.



The acute form often attacks children. Early symptoms include swelling of the eyelids and the development of a hard, red, painful nodule on the skin. Enlargement of the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen occurs, along with inflammation of the heart muscle, psychic changes, and general debility. In adults the chronic form often resembles heart disease.

The control strategy suggested by the World Health Organization is to interrupt transmission of the disease by the vectors and to systematically screen blood donors. Preventive measures, such as the wearing of protective clothing and the use of insecticides, are of primary importance. Medication with antiprotozoal agents is usually effective when administered during the acute stage of infection.

Af·ri·can try·pan·o·so·mi·a·sis

a serious endemic disease in tropic Africa, of two types: Gambian or West African trypanosomiasis and Rhodesian or East African trypanosomiasis.

African trypanosomiasis

African trypanosomiasis

a disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (West African or Gambian trypanosomiasis) or T. brucei rhodesiense (East African or Rhodesian trypanosomiasis), transmitted to humans by the bite of the tsetse fly. African trypanosomiasis occurs only in the savannahs and woodlands of central and east Africa, where tsetse flies are found. The disease progresses through two phases: Stage 1 is marked by fever, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and myocarditis. Stage 2 is marked by symptoms of central nervous system involvement, including lethargy, sleepiness, headache, convulsions, and coma. The disease is fatal unless treated, though it may be years before the patient reaches the neurological phase. Antimicrobial medications specific for the treatment of trypanosomiasis (suramin sodium, pentamidine isothionate, organic arsenicals difluoromethylorthinine, and eflornithine) are available in the United States only from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Kinds of African trypanosomiasis are Gambian trypanosomiasis and Rhodesian trypanosomiasis. Also called African sleeping sickness, sleeping sickness. See also trypanosomiasis.

African Trypanosomiasis

An infestation which cripples livestock and affects humans in sub-Saharan Africa; ±50 million Africans are at risk for this haematogenous parasitaemia.
Vector Tsetse fly.
Types
• Rhodesian trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which is more common in East Africa.
• Gambian trypanosomiasis, caused by T brucei gambiense, which is more common in West Africa.
The trypanosome evades the host’s immune system by frequently changing the proteins on its outer surface, proteins by which the immune system identifies intruders.
Clinical findings Acute febrile syndrome, chills, headache, vomiting, pain in extremities, lymphadenopathy, anaemia, depression, fatigue, coma rapidly progressing to death; chronic disease with CNS depression. Sleeping sickness is more common in the West African form and eventually causes death if untreated.
Management Symptomatic (airway management, fever, malaise).
• East African trypanosomiasis Haematolymphatic stage: suramin; neurologic stage: melarsoprol.  
• West African trypanosomiasis  Haematolymphatic stage: pentamidine or suramin; neurologic stage: melarsoprol or eflornithine.

Af·ri·can try·pan·o·so·mi·a·sis

(af'ri-kăn trī-pan'ō-sŏ-mī'ă-sis)
A serious endemic disease in tropic Africa, of two types: Gambian or West African trypanosomiasis and Rhodesian or East African trypanosomiasis.

African trypanosomiasis (aˑ·fri·kn tri·paˑ·n·s·mīˑ·sis),

n.pr parasite-induced blood and neurological disease contracted by the tsetse fly bite. Often fatal if not treated.

African

pertaining to or originating in Africa.

African buffalo
includes black Cape buffalo, red Congo buffalo and red-brown varieties from Abyssinia to Niger. See also buffalo.
African clawed toad
African daisy
see Seneciopterophorus.
African elephant
Loxodonta africana. See elephant.
African farcy
epizootic lymphangitis.
African glanders
see epizootic lymphangitis.
African green monkey
Cercopithecusaethiops.
African horse sickness
a highly infectious, fatal disease of horses, donkeys and mules. It is caused by an orbivirus transmitted by mosquitoes and possibly Culicoides sp. The clinical picture includes an acute pulmonary form manifested by dyspnea, cough and profuse nasal discharge, and a subacute, cardiac form in which the principal signs are edema of the head and internally, oral petechiation and esophageal paralysis. The mortality rate is very high.
Enlarge picture
African horse sickness, pulmonary form. By permission from Knottenbelt DC, Pascoe RR, Diseases and Disorders of the Horse, Saunders, 2003
African lion hound
African milk bush
African mouth breeder
African freshwater tropical fish distinguished by their behavior of carrying the fertilized eggs in their mouths. Called also Tilapia macrocephala.
African pig disease
see African swine fever (below).
African pygmy pig
see miniature pig.
African redwood
African rue
see Peganumharmala.
African star grass
Cynodonnlemfuensis.
African swine fever
a peracute, highly contagious, highly fatal disease of pigs caused by African swine fever virus, previously a member of the family Iridoviridae, now the only member of the genus Asfivirus. The virus is carried by wart hogs in which it produces no disease and is transmitted to European pigs via the tick Ornithodoros moubata porcinus. The disease was originally confined to southern Africa, but is now enzootic in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa and has spread on occasion to Europe, including Spain, Portugal and Belgium, and also to Cuba and the Dominican Republic.
Currently the disease is eradicated from South America and the Caribbean countries but remains on the Iberian peninsula and Sardinia. The disease resembles classical swine fever (hog cholera). Clinically there is high fever, severe depression, purple skin discoloration, incoordination and posterior paresis. Death occurs about 2 days after the first signs of illness. In recent times the proportion of outbreaks which have been mild in severity has increased markedly.
African trypanosomiasis
nagana. See trypanosomiasis.

Patient discussion about African trypanosomiasis

Q. Need Help.I could not enjoy the blessings of nature. I have sleep problem which affects me to a great extent. Hi friends, I need your help. I could not enjoy the blessings of nature. I have sleep problem which affects me to a great extent. Is there any remedy that I can try other than sleeping pills?

A. Many things can interfere with sleep ranging from anxiety to an unusual work schedule. But people who have difficulty in sleeping often discover that their daily routine holds the key to night-time woes.

? Cut down on caffeine.
? Stop smoking or chewing tobacco.
? Use alcohol cautiously
? Avoid a sedentary life
? Improve your sleep surroundings.
? Keep a regular schedule
? Keep a sleep diary
? Use strategic naps

If you try all the above suggestions and still have sleep problem, talk to your health-care provider.

More discussions about African trypanosomiasis
References in periodicals archive ?
Typical signs of stage 2 of African trypanosomiasis such as reduced activity, anaemia (low PCV) (see Figs.
On the other hand, since 1967, 37 cases of East African trypanosomiasis have been diagnosed in the US.
The diagnosis of East African trypanosomiasis (EAT) was confirmed by isolating T.
Although challenges remain, with five drugs back in production, the outlook concerning African trypanosomiasis has improved.
Dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease), lymphatic filariasis, blinding trachoma, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, Chagas disease, and visceral leishmaniasis.
An improved parasitological technique for the diagnosis of African trypanosomiasis.
Imported human African trypanosomiasis in Europe, 2005-2009.
DNDi's initial drug development efforts are aimed at chloroquine-resistant malaria, human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), visceral leishmaniasis (also called kala-azar), and Chagas disease.
TASE: DPRM) announced today on-line publication of promising results with its drug candidates, DP-460 and DP-b99, in models of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and malaria.
NTDs designated by the WHO for control or elimination: Buruli ulcer, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), cysticercosis/taeniasis, dengue/severe dengue, dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease), echinococcosis, fascioliasis, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, rabies, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, trachoma, and yaws.
To the Editor: We describe a confirmed case of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in an expatriate returning to France from Gabon after a probable tsetse fly bite in the urban setting of Libreville.
Tsetse fly is a vector of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and Animal African Trypanosomiasis (AAT).

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