African sleeping sickness


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African sleeping sickness

 

Gam·bi·an try·pan·o·so·mi·a·sis

a chronic disease of humans caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in northern and sub-Saharan Africa from Senegal east to Sudan and Uganda; characterized by splenomegaly, drowsiness, an uncontrollable urge to sleep, and the development of psychotic changes; basal ganglia and cerebellar involvement commonly lead to chorea and athetosis; the terminal phase of the disease is characterized by wasting, anorexia, and emaciation that gradually leads to coma and death, usually from intercurrent infection.

African sleeping sickness

African sleeping sickness

African Trypanosomiasis

An infestation which cripples livestock and affects humans in sub-Saharan Africa; ±50 million Africans are at risk for this haematogenous parasitaemia.
Vector Tsetse fly.
Types
• Rhodesian trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which is more common in East Africa.
• Gambian trypanosomiasis, caused by T brucei gambiense, which is more common in West Africa.
The trypanosome evades the host’s immune system by frequently changing the proteins on its outer surface, proteins by which the immune system identifies intruders.
Clinical findings Acute febrile syndrome, chills, headache, vomiting, pain in extremities, lymphadenopathy, anaemia, depression, fatigue, coma rapidly progressing to death; chronic disease with CNS depression. Sleeping sickness is more common in the West African form and eventually causes death if untreated.
Management Symptomatic (airway management, fever, malaise).
• East African trypanosomiasis Haematolymphatic stage: suramin; neurologic stage: melarsoprol.  
• West African trypanosomiasis  Haematolymphatic stage: pentamidine or suramin; neurologic stage: melarsoprol or eflornithine.

Gam·bi·an try·pa·no·so·mi·a·sis

(gam'bē-ăn trī-pan'ō-sō-mī'ă-sis)
A chronic disease of humans caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in Africa; characterized by splenomegaly, drowsiness, an uncontrollable urge to sleep, and the development of psychotic changes; basal ganglia and cerebellar involvement commonly lead to chorea and athetosis; the terminal phase of the disease is characterized by wasting, anorexia, and emaciation that gradually lead to coma and death, usually from intercurrent infection.
Synonym(s): chronic trypanosomiasis.

Rho·de·sian try·pan·o·so·mi·a·sis

(rō-dē'zhŭn trī-pan'ō-sŏ-mī'ă-sis)
A disease of humans caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in East Africa; it is clinically similar to Gambian trypanosomiasis but of shorter duration and more acute in form; patients suffer repeated episodes of pyrexia, become anemic, and commonly die from cardiac failure.
Synonym(s): acute African sleeping sickness, acute trypanosomiasis.

African sleeping sickness

See TRYPANOSOMIASIS.

African sleeping sickness

a fatal infection of the nervous and lymphatic systems that is endemic in certain parts of Africa and is caused by a flagellate protozoan called Trypanosoma, particularly T. brucei gambiense (West Africa) and T. bruceirhodesiense (East Africa). The vector of the flagellate is the tsetse fly Glossina, which also feeds on cattle, the latter acting as a reservoir for the parasite. African sleeping sickness is not to be confused with ENCEPHALITIS which is caused by a virus.

Patient discussion about African sleeping sickness

Q. Need Help.I could not enjoy the blessings of nature. I have sleep problem which affects me to a great extent. Hi friends, I need your help. I could not enjoy the blessings of nature. I have sleep problem which affects me to a great extent. Is there any remedy that I can try other than sleeping pills?

A. Many things can interfere with sleep ranging from anxiety to an unusual work schedule. But people who have difficulty in sleeping often discover that their daily routine holds the key to night-time woes.

? Cut down on caffeine.
? Stop smoking or chewing tobacco.
? Use alcohol cautiously
? Avoid a sedentary life
? Improve your sleep surroundings.
? Keep a regular schedule
? Keep a sleep diary
? Use strategic naps

If you try all the above suggestions and still have sleep problem, talk to your health-care provider.

More discussions about African sleeping sickness
References in periodicals archive ?
In addition to trials for African sleeping sickness, pafuramidine is currently in Phase III clinical trials for PCP, and in Phase II trials targeting malaria treatment and malaria prophylaxis.
The trial is evaluating the safety and tolerability of pafuramidine, and comparing pafuramidine's efficacy to pentamidine, a non-oral drug, in treating Human African Tryanosomiasis (HAT), also know as African sleeping sickness.
Collectively referred to as the "Tri Tryps" because each pathogen is an African trypanosomatid, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania major are the causative agents, respectively, of African sleeping sickness, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, which kill nearly 150,000 people each year.
In addition to the Par Pharmaceutical agreement, Immtech received orphan drug status from the USFDA for pafuramidine to treat malaria and African sleeping sickness, added a new board member and a strategic advisor to the team, and received from China's State Food and Drug Administration fast-track status for Immtech's application to conduct a Phase III trial with pafuramidine, to treat pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV/AIDs patients.
In their quest to find a weakness in the single-celled parasite that causes African sleeping sickness, researchers have identified an enzyme that appears indispensable to the microbe's survival.
The two first-place winners will use the 10GB sequencing award to study African sleeping sickness drug resistance and ant fungal garden metagenomes.
The unexpected discovery may provide an "avenue" for disease control of African sleeping sickness, according to Dr Keith Gull, of Oxford University, and his colleagues.
announced today that the Company has granted an exclusive license to BioAlliance Pharma SA (Euronext Paris - ticker code BIO) to commercialize Immtech's oral drug, pafuramidine maleate (pafuramidine), in Europe for the treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in AIDS patients and for the treatment of Human African trypanosomiasis, also known as African sleeping sickness.
2+]-ATPase is localized to acidocalcisomes and the plasma membrane of Trypanosoma brucei, the etiologic agent of African sleeping sickness, and is essential for cell growth, as demonstrated by RNA interference experiments.
African sleeping sickness, caused by Trypanosoma brucei, gradually brings on devastating neurological symptoms that affect the sleep cycle.
A simple search under "fatigue" left me reeling when the web revealed I could be suffering from acute kidney failure, rheumatic fever or, God forbid, something called African sleeping sickness.
The decision to discontinue the development programs was made in conjunction with representatives from the Data Safety Monitoring Board, the Governance Council for the African sleeping sickness grant for the PCP study.

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