African lymphoma


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Related to African lymphoma: Burkitt lymphoma

lymphoma

 [lim-fo´mah]
any neoplastic disorder of lymphoid tissue, including hodgkin's disease. Often used to denote malignant lymphoma, classifications of which are based on predominant cell type and degree of differentiation; various categories may be subdivided into nodular and diffuse types depending on the predominant pattern of cell arrangement.
adult T-cell lymphoma (adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma) adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
African lymphoma Burkitt's lymphoma.
B-cell l's a heterogeneous group of lymphoid malignancies including most non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, representing clonal expansions of malignant B lymphocytes that have been arrested at a particular stage in their differentiation from primitive stem cells. B-cell lymphoma usually appears as a painless lymph node enlargement, although extranodal sites of origin are not uncommon. These lymphomas have been classified on the basis of morphologic features characteristic of the different stages of normal B lymphocyte differentiation.
Burkitt's lymphoma see burkitt's lymphoma.
lymphoma cu´tis primary skin involvement by a B-cell lymphoma without demonstrable systemic disease.
diffuse lymphoma malignant lymphoma in which the neoplastic cells infiltrate the entire lymph node without any organized pattern.
follicular lymphoma malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the lymph nodes that somewhat resemble the germinal centers of lymphatic nodules. Follicular lymphomas usually occur in older persons and commonly involve many or all nodes as well as extranodal sites. Called also nodular lymphoma.
follicular center cell lymphoma any of a large group of B-cell lymphomas, comprising four subtypes classified on the basis of the predominant cell type (resembling small cleaved, large cleaved, small noncleaved, and large noncleaved follicular center cells). Because of the wide variety of prognostic levels and the existence of tumors with several types of cells, the original four categories have now been divided up and scattered among several new categories of follicular and diffuse lymphomas.
giant follicular lymphoma follicular lymphoma.
granulomatous lymphoma Hodgkin's disease.
histiocytic lymphoma a rare type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of intermediate to high malignancy, characterized by large tumor cells that resemble histiocytes morphologically but are considered to be of lymphoid origin. Many tumors formerly placed in this category are now considered to belong in one of the large cell lymphoma groups.
Hodgkin's lymphoma Hodgkin's disease.
large cell lymphoma any of several types of lymphoma characterized by formation of malignant large lymphocytes in a diffuse pattern; some varieties contain exclusively one type of cell, such as lymphoblasts or cleaved or uncleaved follicular center cells, and others have a mixture of cells, sometimes including ones that cannot be characterized as to lineage.
Lennert's lymphoma a type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with a high content of epithelioid histiocytes; bone marrow involvement is common and response to chemotherapy is often poor.
lymphoblastic lymphoma a highly malignant type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma composed of a diffuse, relatively uniform proliferation of cells with round or convoluted nuclei and scanty cytoplasm, which are cytologically similar to the lymphoblasts seen in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
malignant lymphoma a group of malignant neoplasms characterized by the proliferation of cells native to the lymphoid tissues, i.e., lymphocytes, histiocytes, and their precursors and derivatives. The group is divided into two major categories: hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
mixed lymphocytic-histiocytic lymphoma non-Hodgkin's lymphoma characterized by a mixed population of cells, with the smaller cells resembling lymphocytes and the larger ones histiocytes, usually occurring in a nodular histologic pattern but sometimes evolving into a diffuse pattern.
nodular lymphoma follicular lymphoma.
non-Hodgkin's l's a heterogeneous group of malignant lymphomas whose common feature is absence of the giant Reed-Sternberg cells characteristic of hodgkin's disease. They arise from the lymphoid components of the immune system, and present a clinical picture broadly similar to that of Hodgkin's disease except that these diseases are initially more widespread, with the most common manifestation being painless enlargement of one or more peripheral lymph nodes. The nomenclature and classification of these lymphomas has been a subject of controversy. One widely accepted classification is based on two criteria: cytologic characteristics of the constituent cells and type of cell growth pattern (defined as either nodular [follicular] or diffuse). Another system of classification is based on the cell type of origin: T- or B-lymphocytes or histiocytes. Still another formulation has been proposed, separating non-Hodgkin's lymphomas into major histopathologic subtypes using only morphologic criteria.

Diagnostic procedures used to confirm suspected non-Hodgkin's lymphoma include PET scans, gallium scans, and occasionally lymphangiograms. If lymphoma is diagnosed, it will be staged using the same system as for Hodgkin's disease.

Treatment will depend on the type and stage. It may be single agent or multiagent chemotherapy, radiation therapy, biotherapy, or a combination. Blood transfusions and bone marrow transplantation have shown efficacy for some types of lymphoma.

Patient care: major problems presented by the patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma include the management of side effects associated with treatment and the prevention of infection.
small lymphocytic lymphoma a diffuse form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with a low grade of malignancy; it represents the neoplastic proliferation of well-differentiated B lymphocytes and may present with either focal lymph node enlargement or generalized lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. The predominant cell type is a compact, small, normal-appearing lymphocyte with a dark-staining round nucleus, scanty cytoplasm, and little size variation. It nearly always involves the bone marrow, and often malignant cells are found in the blood, so that its clinical picture is similar to that of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Called also well-differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma.
T-cell l's a heterogeneous group of lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformation of the T lymphocytes. Types include convoluted T-cell lymphomas, cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, adult T-cell leukemia, and certain other conditions.
undifferentiated lymphoma malignant lymphoma composed of undifferentiated cells, i.e., cells that do not show morphologic evidence of maturation toward lymphocytes or histiocytes, which vary in size and may include bizarre giant forms.
well-differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma small lymphocytic lymphoma.

African lymphoma

lymphoma

any neoplastic disorder of lymphoid tissue. Often used to denote malignant lymphoma, classifications of which are based on predominant cell type and degree of differentiation; various categories may be subdivided into nodular and diffuse types, depending on the predominant pattern of cell arrangement. There is also a great deal of difference in the types of disease in the different animal species. There is a system of classification based on the histological characteristics of the lymphocytes.

African lymphoma
see burkitt's lymphoma.
angiotropic large-cell lymphoma
an uncommon form of the disease seen rarely in dogs; lesions most commonly in the lungs producing a syndrome similar in many ways to congestive heart failure.
bovine malignant lymphoma
the tumor form of bovine viral leukosis.
Burkitt's lymphoma
see burkitt's lymphoma.
canine malignant lymphoma
the commonest hemopoietic neoplasm of dogs. It is characterized by lymphoid tumors in multiple lymph nodes, spleen, liver or other organs. Lymphocytic leukemia with involvement of bone marrow is much less common.
cutaneous lymphoma
round, raised cutaneous nodules or plaques caused by the infiltration of neoplastic lymphocytes with a tropism for epithelial cells. Occurs in cattle, dogs and humans. See also mycosis fungoides.
follicular lymphoma
a malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are in clusters in the lymph node resembling follicles. Called also giant follicular lymphoma, nodular lymphoma.
giant follicular lymphoma
see follicular lymphoma (above).
Hodgkin's type lymphoma
rare, but reported most frequently in the dog. A diagnosis depends on the identification of the Reed-Sternberg cell in a mixed population of lymphocytes accompanied by sclerosis.
immunoblastic lymphoma
may be nonsecretory or may secrete immunoglobulins. See also myeloma.
large cell lymphoma
classified as diffuse, large cells, large cell immunoblastic or mixed tumors with large cells.
lymphoblastic lymphoma
tumors of medium-sized lymphocytes or small noncleaved lymphocytes.
malignant lymphoma (histiocytic)
a form in which the predominant cell is the prolymphocyte (reticulum cell).
malignant lymphoma (mixed cell)
a form containing proliferations of both prolymphocytes and lymphocytes.
malignant lymphoma (poorly differentiated lymphocytic)
a form in which the predominant cell is morphologically similar to the lymphoblast, containing a fine nuclear chromatin structure and one or more nucleoli.
malignant lymphoma (small cell lymphocytic, small cleaved cell, well-differentiated lymphocytic)
the form in which the predominant cell is the mature lymphocyte.
malignant lymphoma (undifferentiated)
a form in which relatively large stem cells with large nuclei, pale, scanty cytoplasm and indistinct borders predominate.
nodular lymphoma
see follicular lymphoma (above).
T cell lymphoma
a form in which the predominant cell is the mature lymphocyte.
thymic lymphoma
occurs most commonly in yearling cattle and cats. In cattle, it causes obstruction of the esophagus leading to ruminal tympany, engorgement of jugular veins and edema of brisket and submandibular space. In cats it is caused by feline leukemia virus infection and is usually associated with pleural effusion and accompanying dyspnea and regurgitation.